Everyone likes stories, but how do we understand them in other traditions?

Use Cultural Context

Overholt & Callicott’s method: Use philosophy to discover their worldview


Actors- human and animals with social characteristics


Part of everyday experience

One cannot use inappropriate powers

Power is spiritual


Mysthis world at time of world origins

Person is a basic metaphysical category, which includes "other-than-human" (spiritual beings)

Broader than human social world


Alters circumstances for the better

More powerful bestows blessing on less powerful

Can be created by humans

Should not be taken for granted

Disobediance leads to bad results

Reciprocity, Life, and Death

Reciprocity between humans and animals

Fluidity between life and death


Power through dreams

Dreams are part of actual history

Direct contact with other-than-human persons

Part of sociocultural system

Puberty dream, for example

Emphasizes inner control over outer control