Psychology 216-02:
Elementary Statistics

Conditions
in Dayton:
76° F
Clear

Quizzes for the Remaining Chapters:
3/3/2013

You are responsible for whatever material Dr. Biers covers. These quizzes may or may not cover the same material in the same way.
Chapter 10 -- t Test for Two Independent Samples
Chapter 11 -- t Test for Two Related Samples
Chapter 12 -- Introduction to the Analysis of Variance
Chapter 13 -- Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance
Chapter 14 -- Two Factor Analysis of Variance
Chapter 15 -- Correlation
Chapter 16 -- Regression
Chapter 17 -- Chi-Square

Another Change...:
2/19/2013

Starting on Thursday, February 21, Dr. Biers will be your instructor for this class. In all likelihood, he will be your instructor for the remainder of the semester. Dr. Biers has taught statistics for at least as many years as I have been at UD (I've been here for almost 24 years) and has won awards for being an outstanding teacher. I'm sure that you will give him all the attention and respect that you showed me.

I will post links to the assignments and answers that I had prepared for class, as well as the quizzes that I had prepared (up to chapter 9.) However, you are responsible for the material as Dr. Biers teaches it and if there is any disagreement between what he says and what I post, his word is final.

Dr. Bier's email address is available on Isidore.

Some Quizzes:
2/19/2013

You are responsible for whatever material Dr. Biers covers. These quizzes may or may not cover the same material in the same way.
Chapter 7 -- Probability and Samples
Chapter 8 -- Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
Chapter 9 -- Introduction to the t Statistic

2/19/2013

You are responsible for whatever homework Dr. Biers assigns. These are here for your information:

2/13/2013

Grades for exam 1 are available from Isidore. The mean was 86.4 (out of 100 points) with a standard deviation of 11.1. The range was 100 - 64 = 36. The following histogram shows the frequency of each letter grade on the exam:

The answers are given with a brief explanation for each multiple choice problem and the worked solution for the problems. Please look over the answers and if you have any questions, please see me, Dr. Elvers.

This is by far the easiest of the exams. The material gets progressively harder from here. If you did well on this exam, keep up what you have been doing but you may need to spend even more time on the material. If you got a low B or any C grade on this exam, you need to figure out what went wrong and correct it now. Be sure to read the textbook before coming to lecture, do the homework problems, quizzes, and sample calculations on a regular basis. When you have questions, be sure to ask. My past experience with people who did poorly on the first exam is that they are likely to do very poorly on the remaining exams. I encourage the couple of you who got Ds on the exam to consider dropping the course and trying again next semester. If you do not drop the course, you will need to work really hard not only to master the coming material but to sufficiently learn the material from the first exam which you need for the upcoming material.

Dr. Crutcher's Slides:
2/12/2013

Dr. Crutcher's PowerPoint slides are available.

Good Luck on Exam 1:
2/12/2013

Luck shouldn't really play a role in your performance on the exam. But I'll still wish you the best of luck on it. I'll try to have the grades posted on Isidore by Thursday, 2/14, at noon. I'll post on this page when the grades are posted.

Extra Office Hours for Exam 1:
2/6/2013

If you have any questions about the upcoming exam, I will have extra office hours on Tuesday, February 12, from 11 AM to 1 PM. My office is SJ 312. You can also schedule an appointment if those times do not work for you.

Goodbye:
2/5/2013

Dr. Kunz was involved in a car accident this last weekend. While he will be o.k. physically, it will possibly be a while before he is ready to return to UD. That said, someone needs to cover the classes that he teaches. Since I am the only other faculty member at UD that has taught Perception recently, I will be (temporarily?) leaving this class to cover Dr. Kunz's sections of Perception, one of which meets at the same time as this class.

In my place, you will be in the very capable hands of Dr. Crutcher who has taught this course many times. On more than one occasion, I have seen him teach and he is an excellent instructor.

I have prepared the first exam and will grade it, so there should not be anything unexpected on it. If you have questions while you are preparing for the first exam, I will be glad to answer them -- you can email me, drop by during my office hours, or set up an appointment.

Assignment 6:
2/5/2013

Assignment 6 and answers are available.

Quiz 6:
2/5/2013

Quiz 6 is ready for you!

Probability Problems:
2/5/2013

You can test your skill at normal distribution probability problems and the normal approximation to the binomial distribution probability problems. Problems like these could appear on the exam.

Assignment 5:
2/5/2013

Assignment 5 and answers are available.

Quiz 5:
2/5/2013

Quiz 5 is ready for you!

Formula Sheet:
1/31/2013

The formula sheet for exam one contains the only formulae that I will give you for the exam. If the formula is not on the sheet, you need to memorize it.

Study Guide:
1/31/2013

I dislike giving out study guides. Why? Everything I know about learning tells me that you will learn much more by creating your own study guide than if I do it for you. How do you create a study guide? Go through the book and look at each section and subsection and identify the vocabulary and concepts that are talked about. Those are the things that you show know -- the things that should go on your study guide. You should also know how to construct or calculate the various charts, statistics and parameters that we have talked about.

To get you started, here is an non-exhaustive study guide for the first exam.

z Scores from Raw Scores and Vice Versa:
1/31/2013

The z score from raw scores and vice versa problem and solution generator is ready for you to try. For the exam, you should be able to do these types of problems in about one minute.

1/31/2013

After you have completed assignment 4, you can check your answers against mine. If you have questions about one or more of the questions, be sure to ask in class or see me.

Exam 1:
1/29/2013

Exam 1 will be given on Tuesday, February 12. It covers material in chapters 1 through 6 inclusive and material presented on January 15 through February 7. It will have 25 multiple choice questions similar to those on the quizzes, and five problem questions. Cramming is a very poor method of studying and is likely to lead to poor performance on the exam. Spread your study time across all of the time remaining until the exam. If you haven't been reading the textbook, doing the assignments and taking the quizzes, NOW is the time to start doing those things.

SPSS and Descriptive Statistics:
1/25/2013

In class on Tuesday, 1/29, we will start using SPSS. SPSS is a software package that does statistics. The instructions for what we do in class use this SPSS data set. You may need to save the file first and then open the saved file in SPSS.

If you want to install SPSS on your computer, it is available from https://software.udayton.edu. Once you have logged on, click on the All Available Software link. The lab uses version 19, so install that version if it available in the list. After you agree to the terms and conditions, another option will appear that has a check box next to the words "Product Key". Click in the check box. Another box will appear at the bottom that says "Retrieve Product Key". Click in that box. You need the product key to activate SPSS.

Mac people -- while there is a Mac version of SPSS, UD did not buy the site license for it and thus you cannot download it from software.udayton.edu. You can either use the lab computers or install Apple's Boot Camp which will allow you to boot your Mac into Windows and then install SPSS. You will need a copy of Windows to use Boot Camp. The UD TechShop sells Windows installation disks at a reasonable price.

Quiz and Assignment for Chapter 4:
1/24/2013

You can take the quiz for chapter 4 anytime. You should wait to start assignment 4 until we go over SPSS in class on Tuesday, 1/29.

1/24/2013

After you have completed assignment 3, you can check your answers against mine. If you have questions about one or more of the questions, be sure to ask in class or see me. Do not procrastinate in doing the homework and quizzes.

Scale Transformations and Standard Deviation:
1/24/2013

Adding or subtracting a constant from every score does not change the standard deviation. Multiplying or dividing every score by a constant changes the standard deviation in the same way.

Descriptive Statistics:
1/24/2013

The descriptive statistics problem / answer generator is here. If you can calculate the mean, median, mode, variance (of a population and of a sample), standard deviation (of a population and of a sample), interquartile range, and range in under 15 minutes, you should be well prepared for those questions on the first exam.

SS:
1/24/2013

The sum of squares problem / answer generator is here. You should be able to calculate SS both ways (Σ(X - M)2 or ΣX2 - (ΣX)2 / n) with a sample size of 5 in under 5 minutes.

Chapter 4:
1/22/2013

We will start chapter 4, Variability, on Thursday, 1/24. This is one of the most important chapters in the class. Most of the rest of the class assumes that you understand variance, one of the measures of variability. Most students have some level of difficulty with understanding variance. It is very important that you read chapter 4 before coming to class on Thursday as it will help you understand the lecture on variability.

Quiz for Chapter 3:
1/22/2013

The quiz for chapter 3 is available. If you have a question about one (or more) of the questions, be sure to write down the question id (qid) number that is shown in the pop-up box when you miss a question and ask me about the question.

Assignment 3:
1/22/2013

The assignment for chapter 3 is available.

1/22/2013

After you have completed assignment 2, you can check your answers against mine. If you have questions about one or more of the questions, be sure to ask in class or see me. Do not procrastinate in doing the homework and quizzes.

1/17/2013

You are to read the chapter that corresponds to the lecture before coming to the lecture. You will understand class better if you come prepared. Both the syllabus and the today page state which chapter will be covered on which day.

1/17/2013

After you have completed assignment 1, you can check your answers against mine. If you have questions about one or more of the questions, be sure to ask in class or see me. Do not procrastinate in doing the homework and quizzes.

Quiz for Chapter 2:
1/17/2013

The quiz for chapter 2 is available. If you have a question about one (or more) of the questions, be sure to write down the question id (qid) number that is shown in the pop-up box when you miss a question and ask me about the question.

Assignment 2:
1/17/2013

The assignment for chapter 2 is available.

Questionnaire:
1/15/2013

Some of the data that we will analyze this semester will come from you. Visit the questionnaire before next class period and fill out and submit the short form.

Quiz for Chapter 1:
1/15/2013

Quizzes in this class are neither graded, turned in, nor counted toward your grade in the class. The purpose of the quizzes is for you to get feedback about whether you are mastering the content in the class. The quizzes are a sample of the material covered in the book and in class; do not assume that just because you did well on a quiz that you have mastered everything. The quizzes will help you the most if you try them on a regular basis. Do not wait until just before an exam to take the quizzes.

Assignment for Chapter 1:
1/15/2013

Like quizzes, assignments in this class are neither graded, turned in, nor counted toward your grade in the class. The purpose of the assignments is for you to get feedback about whether you are mastering the content in the class. A class period or two after I post the assignment, I will post the worked answers to the assignment for you to compare your work to. If you have questions about an assignment question, please let me know. Waiting until the week before the exam to do the assignments is a really bad idea.

The assignment for chapter 1 is here (Microsoft Word format).

Lecture Notes:
1/15/2013

Copies of the PowerPoint slides are available from the Today link in the list of links on the left. You may need to scroll up or down on the Today page to find the lecture notes for a given chapter. It is your responsibility to print out the lecture notes (if you want them). I will not go slow enough during class for you to copy down everything that is displayed by the projector. Spending your class time copying the notes is a poor use of your time. Rather, listen and write additional notes in your own words.

The Textbook:
1/15/2013

The textbook is Gravetter and Wallnau's Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 9th edition. The book is required for the course. If you don't like the price of the book at the bookstore, cheaper options are available at the publisher's web site or through the UD Textbook Comparison Shopping tool. If you are using an online bookseller, make sure you search for ISBN: 978-1-111-83099-1. You need the book now -- pay for the one or two day shipping.

Welcome!:
1/15/2013

Welcome to PSY 216, Elementary Statistics.  This will be a very important class in your undergraduate career as a psychologist in training.  Why?  First, you need a strong background in statistics in order to do well in PSY 217, Experimental Psychology and to understand the results of studies that are presented in content classes.  But more importantly, statistics allow psychologist to interpret the results of studies.  These results often improve our theories of psychological phenomena and improve the treatments that we can offer people with psychological disorders.  Even psychologists who do not perform studies need to understand statistics, as psychologists are ethically obliged by the American Psychological Association to stay current in their areas of expertise; to do so requires reading journal articles which often contain the results of statistical analysis of data.  Even if you will never be a psychologist, statistical expertise is a characteristic that employers look for when they interview psychology majors for jobs.

I hope that you enjoy the semester and our exploration of elementary statistics (yes -- there are many other statistical methods that are much more advanced that what we will cover.  Some of them you will learn about in graduate school -- most Ph.D. programs in Psychology require at least one year of graduate course work in statistics.)  Don't get behind in class, and ask questions when you have them.

*Current time and time until next exam are based on your computer's clock.
If your computer's clock is wrong, these values will be wrong too.