79. FN78. See Johnson, supra note
44, at 26-28 (discussing cigarette firms continuing to sell to "special
markets" that are primarily African-American and Hispanic and to place
ads in ethnic newspapers and magazines, in spite of the fact that tobacco-related
disease is one of the leading causes of death in blacks).
80. FN79. U.S. Dep't of Health &
Human Servs., Health Status of Minorities and Low- Income Groups 147 tbl.
81. FN80. R. Cooper & B.E. Simmons,
Cigarette Smoking and Ill Health Among Black Americans, 85 N.Y. St. J.
Med. 344-49 (1985); S.D. Stellman & L. Garfinkel, Smoking Habits and
Tar Levels in a New American Cancer Society Prospective Study of 1.2 Million
Men and Women, 76 J. Nat'l Cancer Inst. 1057, 1063 (1986).
82. FN81. Office on Smoking &
Health, U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Servs., The Impact of Cigarette
Smoking on Minority Populations (1987) [hereinafter The Impact of Cigarette
83. FN82. See Black Clergy, Anti-Tobacco
Group Campaign Against Camel Brand, Greensboro News & Rec. (N.C.),
Mar. 14, 1997, at B6, available in 1997 WL 4575885.
84. FN83. Id. In fact, up to 91% of
young African-American women smokers and 87% of young African-American
male smokers report smoking menthol cigarettes compared to 34% and 24%
of white smokers, respectively. See The Impact of Cigarette Smoking, supra
note 81; Office of Smoking & Health, U.S. Dep't Health & Human
Servs,, Tobacco Use in 1986: Methods and Basic Tabulations from Adult Use
of Tobacco Survey (1986); Pamela I. Clark et al., Effect of Menthol Cigarettes
on Biochemical Markers of Smoke Exposure Among Black and White Smokers,
110 Chest 1194, 1194 (1996), available in 1996 WL 9033322; Lynne E. Wagenknecht
et al., Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels Among Smokers in the
Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults Study, 80 Am. J. Pub.
Health 1053, 1056 (1990).
85. FN84. See Clark, supra note 83,
at 1194 (asserting that menthol increases cotinine, the major metabolite
of nicotine, resulting in "greater availability of nicotine and carbon
monoxide, the higher levels of these biochemical markers may be indicators
of higher levels of absorption of other components of the gas and particulate
phases of tobacco smoke").
86. FN85. T.D. Sterling & D. Weinkam,
Comparison of Smoking-Related Risk Factors Among Black and White Males,
15 Am. J. Indus. Med. 319, 333 (1989).
87. FN86. Pub. Health Servs., Dep't
Health & Human Servs., Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A
Report of the Surgeon General 74 (1994). In 1992 only 4% of black high
school seniors smoked compared with 20% of white seniors. Id.
88. FN87. See Carole Tracy Orleans
et al., A Survey of Smoking and Quitting Patterns among Black Americans,
79 Am. J. Pub. Health 176, 178 (1989). See also U.S. Dep't Health &
Human Services, African-Americans and Smoking at a Glance: A Report of
the Surgeon General (1995) [hereinafter Smoking at a Glance]; Jacqueline
M. Royce et al., Smoking Cessation Factors Among Americans and Whites,
83 Am. J. Pub. Health 220, 224-25 (1993); R.C. Stotts et al., Smoking Cessation
among Blacks, 2 J. Health Care Poor Undeserved 307-19 (1991); Rachel Vander
Martin et al., Ethnicity and Smoking: Differences in White, Black, Hispanic,
and Asian Medical Patients Who Smoke, 6 Am. J. Preventative Med. 194, 197-98
89. FN88. Smoking at a Glance, supra
90. FN89. See R. Cooper & S.E.
Simmons, Cigarette Smoking and Ill Health among Black Americans, 85 N.Y.
St. J. Med. 344, 349 (1985); David B. Coultas et al., Respiratory Diseases
in Minorities of the United States, 149 Am. J. Respiratory & Critical
Care Med. S93-S97 (1994) (erratum published in 150 Am. J. Respiratory &
Critical Care Med. 290 (1994)) (reporting that the 1985 NHIS showed that
64% of African-American smokers and 35% of white smokers consumed less
than one pack per day); R.E. Harris et al., Race and Sex Differences in
Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Cigarette Smoking, 22 Int'l J. Epidemiology
592, 599 (1993) (reporting a study by the American Health Foundation that
found on the average that 35% of black men and 50% of black women smoked
ten or fewer cigarettes compared with 14% and 26% for white men and white
women, respectively); Terri Richardson, African-American Smokers and Cancers
of the Lung and of the Upper Respiratory and Digestive Tracts: Is Menthol
Part of the Puzzle?, 166 W.J. Med. 189, 190 (1997); Steven D. Stellman
& Lawrence Garfinkel, Smoking Habits and Tar Levels in a New American
Cancer Society Prospective Study of 1.2 Million Men and Women, 76 J. Nat'l
Cancer Inst. 1057, 1060 (1986).
91. FN90. Id.
92. FN91. See Richardson, supra note
89, at 190. See also Royce, supra note 87, at 223 (reporting that African-Americans
were 1.6 times more likely than whites to be categorized as "wake-up" smokers--those
needing to smoke within ten minutes of awakening).
93. FN92. It is tar that contains
the carcinogens causing cancer. J. Austoker et al., Smoking and Cancer:
Smoking Cessation, 308 British Med. J. 1478, 1482 (1993).
94. FN93. Richardson, supra note 89,
95. FN94. M.E. Jarvik et al., Nonmentholated
Cigarettes Decrease Puff Volume of Smoke and Increase Carbon Monoxide Absorption,
56 Physiology & Behav. 563, 569 (1994); G.E. Miller et al., Cigarette
Mentholation Increase Smokers' Exhaled Carbon Monoxide Levels, 2 Experimental
& Clinical Psychopharmacology 154, 160 (1994); Richardson, supra note
89, at 191.
96. FN95. Smoking at a Glance, supra
note 87; Karen Ahijevych & Mary Ellen Wewers, Factors Associated with
Nicotine Dependence among African-American Women Cigarette Smokers, 16
Res. Nursing & Health 283, 289 (1993); Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, Changes in the Cigarette Brand Preferences of Adolescent
Smokers--United States, 1989-1993, 43 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep.
577 (1994) [hereinafter Changes in Cigarette Brand Preferences]; Centers
for Disease Control, Cigarette Brand Use Among Adult Smokers--United States,
1986, 39 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep. 665, 672 (1990); Coultas,
supra note 89, at S97; Royce, supra note 87, at 220; Stephen Sidney et
al., Mentholated Cigarette Use Among Multiphasic Examinees, 1979-1986,
79 Am. J. Pub. Health 1415, 1415-16 (1989); Wagenknecht, supra note 83,
97. FN96. See Royce, supra note 87,
at 224. See also Changes in Cigarette Brand Preferences, supra note 95,
at 578 (reporting that 82% of African-American teens chose menthol brands).
98. FN97. See generally Sterling &
Weinkam, supra note 85; Royce, supra note 87.
99. FN98. See Geoffrey C. Kabat &
James R. Hebert, Use of Mentholated Cigarettes and Lung Cancer Risk, 51
Cancer Res. 6510, 6510 (1991) (concluding that the use of mentholated cigarettes
does not explain black-white differences in lung cancer incidence rates
or time trends in rates); Stephen Sidney et al., Mentholated Cigarette
Use and Lung Cancer, 155 Archives Internal Med. 727, 729 (1995) (concluding
that there is an increased risk of lung cancer associated with menthol
cigarette use in male smokers).
100. FN99. See Cummings, supra note
28, at 698; Killer Billboards, supra note 29, at 14.
101. FN100. Id.
102. FN101. See J.R. Hebert et al.,
Menthol Cigarette Smoking and Esophageal Cancer, 18 Int'l J. Epidemiology
37, 44 (1989); Richardson, supra note 89, at 191.
103. FN102. See generally Health
Status of Minorities, supra note 79; David R. Williams et al., The Concept
of Race and Health Status in America, 109 Pub. Health Rep. 26 (1994), available
in 1994 WL 13504730.
104. FN103. Health Status of Minorities,
supra note 79.
105. FN104. Id. at tbl. 1.
106. FN105. Id.
107. FN106. Centers for Disease Control,
Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost--United
States, 1988, 40 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep. 62, 69 (1991).
108. FN107. See generally Centers
for Disease Control, Cigarette Smoking Among Blacks and Other Minority
Populations, 36 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep. 405 (1987); R. Cooper
& B.E. Simmons, Cigarette Smoking and Ill Health Among Black Americans,
85 N.Y. St. Med. J. 344 (1985).
109. FN108. Health Status of Minorities,
supra note 79, at 141 tbl. 1.
110. FN109. See U.S. Dep't Health
& Human Servs., 1 Executive Summary Report of the Secretary's Task
Force on Black & Minority Health 88 (1985).
111. FN110. See id.; C.C. Boring
et al., Cancer Statistics For African-Americans, 42 Ca: Cancer J. Clinicians
7 (1992); Harris, supra note 89, at 599.
112. FN111. Health Status of Minorities,
supra note 79, at 145 tbl. 7.
113. FN112. Id.
114. FN113. Id. The incidence of
lung and bronchus cancer in black women exceeds that of white women by
115. FN114. Harris, supra note 89,
116. FN115. Health Status of Minorities,
supra note 79, at 146 tbl. 8.
117. FN116. Id.
118. FN117. Loretta Baines, Study
Claims Black Females at Greater Risk from Smoking, Tri-State Defender,
Mar. 22, 1996, at 3A, available in 1996 WL 15887760 (reporting on study
conducted by Dr. Henry Glindmeyer, a professor at the Tulane University
Medical School). "The study found that black female smokers had 10 percent
less capacity than black females who have never smoked. White females had
eight percent less capacity than their nonsmoker contemporaries. White
males had seven percent less and black males had six percent less." Id.
119. FN118. See generally Cigarette
Smoking Among Blacks and Other Minority Populations, supra note 107.
120. FN119. Id. at 406.
121. FN120. See Jacqueline M. Royce
et al., Smoking Cessation Factors Among African- Americans and Whites,
83 Am. J. Pub. Health 220, 224-25 (1993). See also Richardson, supra note
89, at 190-93.
122. FN121. See generally Lorraine
P. Hahn et al., Cigarette Smoking and Cessation Behaviors Among Urban Blacks
and Whites, 105 Pub. Health Rep. 290 (1990). See also Richardson, supra
note 89, at 193.