Race, Racism and the Law
"Speaking Truth to Power"

Whitest Public Law Schools (State Population)

The 2004 Whitest Law Schools Report
The Top Ten Whitest Law Schools in the United States

Top Ten Whitest Public Law School
Based on Excess Whiteness
 State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old**

(Ranking Numbers) (Alphabetical Listing)
  School State Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 38.32
2 University of Houston  TX 33.52
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 31.72
4 University of Mississippi  MS 31.56
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 30.49
6 University of South Carolina  SC 28.67
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 27.86
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 26.39
9 University at Buffalo NY 26.36
10 Georgia State University  GA 25.86

Discussion  
  • Public law schools are supported by the taxes of the citizens of their state. They have a responsibility to serve all the citizens.  
  • This listing ranks the public law schools on whether they are serving white citizens better than the rest of their state population. 
  • Specifically, excess whiteness in law school was calculated using two different base populations. 

  • First,  using the population of the state 21-39 years old. This population group was used because for most schools this age group accounts for most of the law students.  Second, using the law school applications. 
  • This page report is based on state population. Specifically, excess whiteness was calculated by taking the based population, such as "% state population 21 to 39 year old: White only" and subtracting it from "%whiteness in the law school".   The data sets from the census bureau were used to calculate total population between 21-39 and white population between 21-39. Specifically, Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data set, detailed tables.
  • The greater the disparity the higher the rank. Ranking is based on excess whiteness not actual percentage of white students.  That is the disparity between the percentage of whites in the law school from the percentage of whites in the state between 21-39 years old.
  • So, for example, Texas Tech has 85.7% white students while the state of Texas only has 47.38% Whites between the age 21 to 39 years old.  The disparity (excess whiteness) between whiteness in the student body and in the state is 38.32 percentage points. That is, based on the population of the state, only 47.38% of Texas Tech Student body should be white. 
  • While there are a number of reasons why the disparity exist the difference is so significant, a state has to be concern whether its public institutions are preparing lawyers to match the racial diversity of its population.
Descriptive Statistics (Historically White Law Schools)
  • For the seventy-four public law schools, the average excess whiteness based on state population is 11.80 percentage points; half of the schools have excess whiteness below 8.61 percentage points.  In fact, 11 (14.9%) have no excess whiteness and  another 11 (14.9%)  have less than 5.00 percentage points excess whiteness.  For example, if a state population between 21-39 is 50% white, the average law school would have whiteness 61.8 %  (11.8 Excess Whiteness Percentage Points)
  • 27 (37.5%) have significant excess whiteness with excesses over 15.00 percentage points. (See Table)  For 19 schools, the disparity between the whiteness of the state and the whiteness of the law school is over 20 percentage points.  
  • Five schools have excess whiteness percentage points over 30.0. Those schools were Texas Tech University, University of Houston, University of Texas (Austin), University of Mississippi and University of California (Los Angeles).
  • Based on percentage of whites in the law school, some schools in the Top Ten have a low percentage of whites in the student body. 
  • For instance, the University of New Mexico has 65.2% whiteness and  the University of California Davis has 65.2% whiteness). 
  • However, when compared to the percentage of whites between ages 21-39 in their respective states, these schools still have a high percentage of whiteness in the law school. For instance, New Mexico's white population between 21-39 years old is only  39.54% and California is 40.81%. 
  • There are a number of factors that can affect why such disparities exist , i.e.  interest in law school, preparedness for law school, etc.,  however as state schools such large disparities may  also represent a failure of the law school to adequately serve the needs of the state by assuring access to legal education to all citizens of their state.
 
Descriptive Statistics (Top Ten)
  • The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School all have excess whiteness of 25 percentage points or more. For example, if a state population between 21-39 is 50% white, the law school would have whiteness over 75%  (25 percentage points Excess Whiteness)

  • Half The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School have excesses over 29.58 percentage points and the average is 30.08 percentage points ; the minimum is 25.86 and the maximum is 38.32.

 
States
  • With the attack on affirmative action it is probably of no surprise that Texas with Hopwood  has three schools on the Top Ten Whitest Public Law School list and California with Proposition 209 has two schools. 
  • However,  the disparities is striking and one wonders if the difference can all be accounted for by demise of affirmative action.

 Regions:
  • Great Lakes has the lowest minimum excess percentage points (-9.61); South Central has the highest (38.32); Southeast has the highest mean (24.15) and Midwest has the lowest mean (3.27); Southeast also has the highest median (25.56) and Great Lakes has the lowest median (3.56).
  • Six (6)  of The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School are  from the south. 

  • Of the 13 public law schools with disparities in percentage points greater than 25,  60% are in the south.
  • None of the schools in the southeast have excess whiteness below 15.00 points; all of the schools in New England have excess whiteness points below 15.00 points.
  • Of the 11 schools with no excess whiteness, 72.7% are in the Midwest/Great Lakes region
  • The difference among region is statistically significant (p=.000). That is, there is less than a .00 probability that the difference occurred by chance alone. Given that the highest medians occurred in three regions (Southcentral, Southeast and Far west) provides some indication that attacks on affirmative action is making our power base (lawyers) more white.

Tier :  
  • 3 of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools are 1st tier schools and 5 are 2nd tier

  • 68.9% (51) Historically White Public Law School are 1st tier or 2nd tier 2. In fact, only 9.5% (7) are 4th tier law schools.
  • The 1st tier have lowest minimum excess whiteness percentage points (-9.61); 4th tier have the highest maximum excess whiteness percentage points (38.32); 3rd Tier have the lowest mean (6.84) and 4th tier have the highest mean (13.49); 4th tier have the lowest median (6.82) and 1st tier have the highest median (15.09)
  • 2nd tier law schools have highest percentage of schools (26.9%) with excess white percentage points over 25.00. In fact, 53.8% of all schools with excess percentage points over 25 points were 2nd tier school. 
  • The difference among tiers is not statistically significant.

 


Top Ten Whitest 
Public Law Schools
 Historically White 
Public Law Schools

Descriptive Statistics for
Top Ten Public Law Schools
Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old

Mean 30.08
Median 29.58
Minimum 25.86
Maximum 38.32

Descriptive Statistics 
for Historically White Public Law Schools
Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old

Number

74

Mean

11.80

Median 8.61
Minimum -9.61
Maximum 38.32
  

Descriptive Statistics 
for Historically White Public Law Schools
Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old

(Groupings)

Frequency

Percent

No Excess

11

14.9

.01 to 4.99

11

14.9

5.00 to 14.99

25

33.8

15.00 to 24.99

14

18.9

25.00 to 39.99

13

17.6

Total

74

100.0

 

Tier of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

3

30.0

2nd Tier (USNews)

5

50.0

3rd Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

4th Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

Tier

Tier of  Whitest Public Law Schools Based on State Population (n=74)
Age 21 to 39 years old

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

25

33.8

2nd Tier (USNews)

26

35.1

3rd Tier (USNews)

14

18.9

4th Tier (USNews)

7

9.5

No US News Ranking

2

2.7

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

1st Tier (USNews)

-9.61

31.72

12.7740

15.0900

25

2nd Tier (USNews)

-1.04

33.52

13.0700

8.1500

26

3rd Tier (USNews)

-3.10

27.86

6.8386

7.5500

14

4th Tier (USNews)

2.96

38.32

13.4871

6.8200

7

No US News Ranking

2.86

21.18

12.0200

12.0200

2

Total

-9.61

38.32

11.8022

8.6100

74

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

430.295

4

107.574

.896

.471

Excess Whiteness by Tier
Public Law Schools Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74)
(Percentage in rows read across)

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

20.0%

8.0%

20.0%

36.0%

16.0%

2nd Tier (USNews)

11.5%

15.4%

34.6%

11.5%

26.9%

3rd Tier (USNews)

21.4%

14.3%

57.1%

 

7.1%

4th Tier (USNews)

  

28.6%

42.9%

14.3%

14.3%

No US News Ranking

   

50.0%

  

50.0%

 

Excess Whiteness by Tier
Public Law Schools Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74)
(Percentage in columns read down)

 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

 

1st Tier (USNews)

45.5%

18.2%

20.0%

64.3%

30.8%

33.8%

2nd Tier (USNews)

27.3%

36.4%

36.0%

21.4%

53.8%

35.1%

3rd Tier (US Nres)

27.3%

18.2%

32.0%

7.7%

18.9%

4th Tier (US News)

  

18.2%

12.0%

7.1%

7.7%

9.5%

No US News Ranking

  

9.1%

 

7.1%

 

2.7%

 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.137

.114

-1.173

.245

 
Regions where Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools Located

Frequency

Percent

New England

1

10.0

South Central

3

30.0

Southeast

3

30.0

Great Lakes

1

10.0

Far West

2

20.0

Regions where Whitest Public Law Schools Located

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

7

9.5

New England

2

2.7

Southcentral

7

9.5

Southeast

7

9.5

Midsouth

13

17.6

Midwest

8

10.8

Great Lakes

14

18.9

Mountain West

8

10.8

Northwest

2

2.7

Far West

6

8.1

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

Northeast

-.02

26.36

10.2371

7.9800

7

New England

-.59

13.13

6.2700

6.2700

2

Southcentral

5.85

38.32

23.0386

25.0100

7

Southeast

15.09

31.56

24.1471

25.5600

7

Midsouth

-3.10

21.91

10.6054

9.5400

13

Midwest

-7.01

7.82

3.2700

6.1300

8

Great Lakes

-9.61

27.86

4.6521

3.5600

14

Mountain West

4.53

25.66

11.2725

9.5450

8

Northwest

.16

7.57

3.8650

3.8650

2

Far West

4.45

30.49

21.9650

24.6400

6

Total

-9.61

38.32

11.8022

8.6100

7

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

4093.605

9

454.845

6.295

.000

Excess Whiteness by Region
Public Law Schools Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74)
(Percentage in rows read across)

 

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

14.3%

28.6%

28.6%

14.3%

14.3%

New England

50.0%

 

50.0%

 

 

Southcentral

 

 

28.6%

14.3%

57.1%

Southeast

  

  

  

42.9%

57.1%

Midsouth

7.7%

30.8%

23.1%

38.5%

   

Midwest

25.0%

12.5%

62.5%

  

   

Great Lakes

42.9%

7.1%

42.9%

  

7.1%

Mountain West

  

12.5%

62.5%

12.5%

12.5%

Northwest

   

50.0%

50.0%

 

 

Far West

   

16.7%

  

50.0%

33.3%

Excess Whiteness by Region
Public Law Schools Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old (n=74)
(Percentage in columns read down)

No Excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

18.2%

8.0%

7.1%

7.7%

New England

9.1%

 

4.0%

 

  

Southcentral

 

  

8.0%

7.1%

30.8%

Southeast

 

  

 

21.4%

30.8%

Midsouth

9.1%

36.4%

12.0%

35.7%

 

Midwest

18.2%

9.1%

20.0%

 

  

Great Lakes

54.5%

9.1%

24.0%

  

7.7%

Mountain West

  

9.1%

20.0%

7.1%

7.7%

Northwest

 

9.1%

4.0%

 

 

Far West

 

9.1%

21.4%

15.4%

Symmetric Measures

 

 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.131

.125

-1.125

.264

 

States Where Top Ten  Whitest Public Law Schools Located

CA

2

GA

1

IL

1

MS

1

NY

1

SC

1

TX

3

 

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (Ranking)
Based on State Population
Age 21 to 39 years old

School State %Whiteness of School % Whiteness in State Population 21-39 Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 47.38 38.32
2 University of Houston  TX 80.9 47.38 33.52
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 47.38 31.72
4 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 58.84 31.56
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 40.81 30.49
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93 64.33 28.67
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 63.34 27.86
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 40.81 26.39
9 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 56.54 26.36
10 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 58.64 25.86
11 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 39.54 25.66
12 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 58.64 25.56
13 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3 61.29 25.01
14 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 40.81 24.89
15 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 40.81 24.39
16 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 68.42 22.68
17 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 59.2 22.3
18 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 57.39 21.91
19 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 59.02 21.18
20 University of Maryland  MD 77 57.39 19.61
21 Florida State University  FL 77.7 58.31 19.39
22 George Mason University VA 85.3 66.74 18.56
23 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 66.74 16.66
24 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 66.74 16.36
25 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 71 15.6
26 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 57.73 15.17
27 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 58.31 15.09
28 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 63.34 14.06
29 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 66.81 13.49
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 71.97 13.13
31 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 57.73 11.57
32 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 76.05 11.25
33 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 71.04 10.76
34 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 63.34 9.76
35 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 82.64 9.66
36 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 76.96 9.54
37 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 76.96 8.74
38 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 81.42 8.48
39 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 85.37 8.33
40 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4 81.42 7.98
41 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 81.78 7.82
42 University of Akron OH 90.4 82.64 7.76
43 Wayne State University MI 83.7 76.04 7.66
44 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 78.83 7.57
45 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 84.13 7.47
46 University of Montana  MT 95.6 88.26 7.34
47 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 81.78 6.82
48 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 82.78 6.82
49 Washburn University KS 85.8 79.42 6.38
50 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 79.42 5.88
51 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 76.05 5.85
52 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 82.64 5.36
53 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 87.92 4.98
54 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 87.92 4.78
55 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 87.17 4.53
56 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 24.75 4.45
57 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 59.2 3.6
58 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 87.92 3.48
59 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 56.54 2.96
60 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 35.64 2.86
61 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 86.59 1.81
62 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 76.04 1.76
63 University of Washington  WA 75.4 75.24 0.16
64 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 81.42 -0.02
65 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 83.8 -0.4
66 University of Maine  ME 95.3 95.89 -0.59
67 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 82.64 -1.04
68 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 82.64 -1.64
69 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 83.8 -1.8
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 90.21 -3.01
71 West Virginia University  WV 91 94.1 -3.1
72 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 85.46 -4.26
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 90.31 -7.01
74 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 85.21 -9.61

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (Alphabetical Listing)

  School State %Whiteness of School % Whiteness in State Population 21-39 Excess Whiteness 
31 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 57.73 11.57
52 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 82.64 5.36
59 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 56.54 2.96
21 Florida State University  FL 77.7 58.31 19.39
22 George Mason University VA 85.3 66.74 18.56
10 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 58.64 25.86
69 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 83.8 -1.8
65 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 83.8 -0.4
13 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  LA 86.3 61.29 25.01
28 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 63.34 14.06
53 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 87.92 4.98
68 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 82.64 -1.64
40 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) PA 89.4 81.42 7.98
17 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 59.2 22.3
57 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 59.2 3.6
7 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 63.34 27.86
64 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 81.42 -0.02
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 47.38 38.32
9 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 56.54 26.36
42 University of Akron OH 90.4 82.64 7.76
16 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 68.42 22.68
26 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 57.73 15.17
51 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 76.05 5.85
32 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 76.05 11.25
18 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 57.39 21.91
15 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 40.81 24.39
14 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 40.81 24.89
8 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 40.81 26.39
5 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 40.81 30.49
67 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 82.64 -1.04
33 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 71.04 10.76
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 71.97 13.13
60 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 35.64 2.86
27 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 58.31 15.09
12 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 58.64 25.56
56 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 24.75 4.45
2 University of Houston  TX 80.9 47.38 33.52
39 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 85.37 8.33
34 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 63.34 9.76
73 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 90.31 -7.01
50 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 79.42 5.88
54 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 87.92 4.78
58 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 87.92 3.48
66 University of Maine  ME 95.3 95.89 -0.59
20 University of Maryland  MD 77 57.39 19.61
36 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 76.96 9.54
62 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 76.04 1.76
72 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 85.46 -4.26
4 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 58.84 31.56
41 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 81.78 7.82
47 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 81.78 6.82
46 University of Montana  MT 95.6 88.26 7.34
45 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 84.13 7.47
19 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 59.02 21.18
11 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 39.54 25.66
29 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 66.81 13.49
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 90.21 -3.01
25 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 71 15.6
44 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 78.83 7.57
38 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 81.42 8.48
6 University of South Carolina  SC 93 64.33 28.67
61 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 86.59 1.81
37 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 76.96 8.74
3 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 47.38 31.72
35 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 82.64 9.66
48 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 82.78 6.82
23 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 66.74 16.66
63 University of Washington  WA 75.4 75.24 0.16
74 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 85.21 -9.61
55 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 87.17 4.53
49 Washburn University KS 85.8 79.42 6.38
43 Wayne State University MI 83.7 76.04 7.66
71 West Virginia University  WV 91 94.1 -3.1
24 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 66.74 16.36

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Vernellia R. Randall
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Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).