2005 The Whitest Law School Report
and Other Law School Rankings Related
to Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Law School

Professor Vernellia R. Randall

Chapter 4: Whiteness in Law Schools Total Percentage and
Excess Whiteness Based on National L.S.A.C. Applications

 What's New! (Based on 2004 ABA/LSAC Information) Comment/Guestbook

#### Whiteness > 90%

 Excess Whiteness Disparities Based on National LSAC Applications Excess Whiteness Disparities is the ratio (calculated into a percentage) between Total Whiteness and National LSAC Application Pool. hiteness is defined as Caucasian or white. It includes individuals that did not identify a racial group. It does not include individuals who identified "other" as their racial group. It does not include foreign nationals. Excess Whiteness Disparities is calculated by subtracting the National LSAC Application Pool from the school whiteness, dividing the difference by National LSAC Application Pool and multiplying the results by 100. In 2003 the total percentage of applications to LSAC that were from white students was 67.6%. If you subtract the University of Montana Total Whiteness of 96.3% the result is a -28.7 difference.  The ratio is 28.7/67.6, the result of the ratio is .425. If you multiple .425 by 100 the Excess Whiteness Disparity for the University of Montana is 42.5% This analysis includes all 177 law schools.  Chart) Of the 177 law schools 62 (__% had excess disparities greater than 25% and only 18 (__%) law schools had no excess whiteness disparities.  The minimum difference was -19% (__ LS) and the maximum difference was 42.5% (University of Montana).  Half the Historically White Law Schools had whiteness greater than the national LSAC pool by  20.4%; while the average difference was 18.7%.  of the 177 historically white schools, 89.8% had some excess whiteness. The ten schools with the greatest excess whiteness disparities are Montana (42.5%), Samford (39.9%), Campbell (39.6%), Duquesne (39.5%), Quinnipac (37%), South Carolina (37%), South Dakota (36.4%),  Maine (36.2%), Marquette (36.2%) and Kentucky (36.1%). (Table)  The ten schools with the greatest excess whiteness disparities  are  . (Table) US News Tier.  3rd Tier Schools had the lowest minimum difference (-7.2%), highest maximum (42.5%), highest median (27.7%) and highest mean (26.5%).  On the other hand 1st Tier Law Schools had the highest minimum difference (-11.1%), lowest maximum (36.1%), lowest median (12.1%) and lowest mean (13.3%).  That is, 1st tier law schools are the least white; while third tier schools are the most white. The difference in means among US NEWS Tiers  is statistically significant at a .000 level.  That there is less than a 0% chance that difference occurred by chance. (Table) Public-Private School. Public law schools had the highest median ratio at 23.7%; that is half of the public schools had a difference between the whiteness in the national pool and in the whiteness in there law school by 23.7%.  There is a significant difference (p=.015)  between the mean of private law schools (16.7) and public law schools (21.7).; that is, less than a 1.5 % probability that the difference between public and private schools occurred by chance. (Table) Region. Of the 177 Historically white law schools (HWLS), Percentage difference between Whiteness and  National LSAC Application.  For instance, Nationally, there are 177 historically white law schools.  The minimum difference was -19% and the maximum difference was 42.5%. Half the schools have whiteness greater than the national LSAC pool by  20.4%; while the average difference was 18.7%.   The Pacific West had the lowest median difference (4.1%) and the Midwest had the highest median difference (30.6%).  The difference among regions is statistically significant at a .000 level.  That there is less than a 0% chance that difference occurred by chance. (Table)

 How to read the chart below: University of Montana has 96.3 % Whiteness; which is 28.7 points (Difference)  greater than the National LSAC Application pool of 67.6 percent; resulting in an the Whiteness in University of Montana being 42.5% (Ratio) whiter than the National LSAC Application Pool.   2003 Top Ten  Excess Whiteness  Disparities Rank Name Whiteness Diff. Disparity 1 University of Montana 96.3 28.7 42.5 2 Samford University (Cumberland) 94.6 27 39.9 3 Campbell University 94.4 26.8 39.6 4 Duquesne University 94.3 26.7 39.5 5 Quinnipiac University 92.6 25 37 5 University of South Carolina 92.6 25 37 7 University of South Dakota 92.2 24.6 36.4 8 University of Maine 92.1 24.5 36.2 8 Marquette University 92.1 24.5 36.2 10 University of Kentucky 92 24.4 36.1 [Return]

 Ten HWLS with Smallest Excess Whiteness Disparity Based on National LSAC Pool Excess Whiteness School Disparity Percentage 177 St. Thomas University -19.2 176 CUNY-Queens College -16 175 Whittier Law School -15.7 174 Western State University -14.9 173 Santa Clara University -13 172 Columbia University -11.1 171 University of Southern California -10.1 170 Loyola Law School -8.9 169 Southwestern University School of Law -7.2 168 University of California (Davis) -6.7

 Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by US News Tier US News Tier Minimum Maximum Median Mean N 1st Tier -11.1 36.1 12.1 13.3 52 2nd Tier -13 37 19.8 19.1 51 3rd Tier -7.2 42.5 27.7 26.5 28 4th Tier -16 39.6 24.4 21.2 41 No US News Rank -19.2 34.6 16.1 8.9 5 Total -19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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 Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by School Status Minimum Maximum Median Mean N Private School ‑19.2 39.9 17.3 16.7 105 Public School ‑16.0 42.5 23.7 21.7 72 Total ‑19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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 Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by Region Region Minimum Maximum Median Mean N Great Lakes ‑1.0 36.2 22.8 21.4 33 Midsouth 2.1 39.6 25.4 23.6 25 Midwest 15.8 36.4 30.6 28.9 12 Mountain West ‑4.6 42.5 23.5 20.9 11 New England ‑0.4 37 23.8 21.5 14 Northeast ‑16.0 39.5 15.9 14.5 24 Pacific West ‑15.7 29.7 4.1 5.8 25 South Central ‑1.8 30.8 19.2 19.9 16 Southeast ‑19.2 39.9 20.6 19.5 17 Total ‑19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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