2005 The Whitest Law School Report
and Other Law School Rankings Related
to Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Law School


Professor Vernellia R. Randall

Excess Whiteness Disparities
Chapter 4: Whiteness in Law Schools Total Percentage and
Excess Whiteness Based on National L.S.A.C. Applications

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(Based on 2004 ABA/LSAC Information)

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Total Whiteness (TW)
TW Alphabetical
TW Rankings
Excess Whiteness (EW)
EW Rankings
EW Alphabetical


   

Whiteness > 90%

Campbell (NC)
Duquesne (PA)
Marquette (KY)
Kentucky
Maine
Montana
Quinnipac (CT)
Samford (AL)
South Carolina
South Dakota


 

 

 

 Excess Whiteness Disparities
Based on National LSAC Applications

Excess Whiteness Disparities is the ratio (calculated into a percentage) between Total Whiteness and National LSAC Application Pool.

Whiteness is defined as Caucasian or white. It includes individuals that did not identify a racial group. It does not include individuals who identified "other" as their racial group. It does not include foreign nationals. Excess Whiteness Disparities is calculated by subtracting the National LSAC Application Pool from the school whiteness, dividing the difference by National LSAC Application Pool and multiplying the results by 100.

In 2003 the total percentage of applications to LSAC that were from white students was 67.6%. If you subtract the University of Montana Total Whiteness of 96.3% the result is a -28.7 difference.  The ratio is 28.7/67.6, the result of the ratio is .425. If you multiple .425 by 100 the Excess Whiteness Disparity for the University of Montana is 42.5%

This analysis includes all 177 law schools.  Chart) Of the 177 law schools 62 (__% had excess disparities greater than 25% and only 18 (__%) law schools had no excess whiteness disparities.  The minimum difference was -19% (__ LS) and the maximum difference was 42.5% (University of Montana).  Half the Historically White Law Schools had whiteness greater than the national LSAC pool by  20.4%; while the average difference was 18.7%.  of the 177 historically white schools, 89.8% had some excess whiteness.

The ten schools with the greatest excess whiteness disparities are Montana (42.5%), Samford (39.9%), Campbell (39.6%), Duquesne (39.5%), Quinnipac (37%), South Carolina (37%), South Dakota (36.4%),  Maine (36.2%), Marquette (36.2%) and Kentucky (36.1%). (Table)  The ten schools with the greatest excess whiteness disparities  are  . (Table)

US News Tier.  3rd Tier Schools had the lowest minimum difference (-7.2%), highest maximum (42.5%), highest median (27.7%) and highest mean (26.5%).  On the other hand 1st Tier Law Schools had the highest minimum difference (-11.1%), lowest maximum (36.1%), lowest median (12.1%) and lowest mean (13.3%).  That is, 1st tier law schools are the least white; while third tier schools are the most white. The difference in means among US NEWS Tiers  is statistically significant at a .000 level.  That there is less than a 0% chance that difference occurred by chance. (Table)

Public-Private School. Public law schools had the highest median ratio at 23.7%; that is half of the public schools had a difference between the whiteness in the national pool and in the whiteness in there law school by 23.7%.  There is a significant difference (p=.015)  between the mean of private law schools (16.7) and public law schools (21.7).; that is, less than a 1.5 % probability that the difference between public and private schools occurred by chance. (Table)

Region. Of the 177 Historically white law schools (HWLS), Percentage difference between Whiteness and  National LSAC Application.  For instance, Nationally, there are 177 historically white law schools.  The minimum difference was -19% and the maximum difference was 42.5%. Half the schools have whiteness greater than the national LSAC pool by  20.4%; while the average difference was 18.7%.   The Pacific West had the lowest median difference (4.1%) and the Midwest had the highest median difference (30.6%).  The difference among regions is statistically significant at a .000 level.  That there is less than a 0% chance that difference occurred by chance. (Table)

 

How to read the chart below: University of Montana has 96.3 % Whiteness; which is 28.7 points (Difference)  greater than the National LSAC Application pool of 67.6 percent; resulting in an the Whiteness in University of Montana being 42.5% (Ratio) whiter than the National LSAC Application Pool.
 

2003 Top Ten
 Excess Whiteness  Disparities
 

Rank

Name

Whiteness

Diff.

Disparity

1

University of Montana

96.3

28.7

42.5

2

Samford University (Cumberland)

94.6

27

39.9

3

Campbell University

94.4

26.8

39.6

4

Duquesne University

94.3

26.7

39.5

5

Quinnipiac University

92.6

25

37

5

University of South Carolina

92.6

25

37

7

University of South Dakota

92.2

24.6

36.4

8

University of Maine

92.1

24.5

36.2

8

Marquette University

92.1

24.5

36.2

10

University of Kentucky

92

24.4

36.1

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Ten HWLS with Smallest Excess Whiteness Disparity
Based on National LSAC Pool 
Excess Whiteness
School
Disparity Percentage
177
St. Thomas University
-19.2
176
CUNY-Queens College
-16
175
Whittier Law School
-15.7
174
Western State University
-14.9
173
Santa Clara University
-13
172
Columbia University
-11.1
171
University of Southern California
-10.1
170
Loyola Law School
-8.9
169
Southwestern University School of Law
-7.2
168
University of California (Davis)
-6.7
 

Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by US News Tier
US News Tier Minimum Maximum Median Mean N
1st Tier -11.1 36.1 12.1 13.3 52
2nd Tier -13 37 19.8 19.1 51
3rd Tier -7.2 42.5 27.7 26.5 28
4th Tier -16 39.6 24.4 21.2 41
No US News Rank -19.2 34.6 16.1 8.9 5
Total -19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by School Status
  Minimum Maximum Median Mean N
Private School ‑19.2 39.9 17.3 16.7 105
Public School ‑16.0 42.5 23.7 21.7 72
Total ‑19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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Excess Whiteness Ratio (National LSAC Application Pool) in Historically White Law Schools by Region
Region Minimum Maximum Median Mean N
Great Lakes ‑1.0 36.2 22.8 21.4 33
Midsouth 2.1 39.6 25.4 23.6 25
Midwest 15.8 36.4 30.6 28.9 12
Mountain West ‑4.6 42.5 23.5 20.9 11
New England ‑0.4 37 23.8 21.5 14
Northeast ‑16.0 39.5 15.9 14.5 24
Pacific West ‑15.7 29.7 4.1 5.8 25
South Central ‑1.8 30.8 19.2 19.9 16
Southeast ‑19.2 39.9 20.6 19.5 17
Total ‑19.2 42.5 20.4 18.7 177

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Chapter

TWLS
2005 TWLS
01 Introduction
02 Top Ten
03 LSAT
04 National
05 Regional
06 State
07 Isolation
08 Law Schools

 

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Last Date Website Updated:
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Vernellia Randall.  All Rights Reserved

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Professor Vernellia R. Randall
The University of Dayton School of Law
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469-2772

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