2005 The Whitest Law School Report
and Other Law School Rankings Related
to Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Law School


Professor Vernellia R. Randall

Total Whiteness
Chapter 4: Whiteness in Law Schools Total Percentage and
Excess Whiteness Based on National L.S.A.C. Applications

What's New!

(Based on 2004 ABA/LSAC Information)

Comment/Guestbook

 

 

 


Total Whiteness (TW)
TW Alphabetical
TW Rankings
Excess Whiteness (EW)
EW Rankings
EW Alphabetical


   

Whiteness > 90%

Campbell (NC)
Duquesne (PA)
Marquette (KY)
Kentucky
Maine
Montana
Quinnipac (CT)
Samford (AL)
South Carolina
South Dakota


 

 

 
 
Total WhitenessWhiteness is defined as Caucasian or white. It includes individuals that did not identify a racial group. It does not include individuals who identified "other" as their racial group. It does not include foreign nationals. Total Whiteness is the total percent of white students in a law school. The total percent of white student was calculated by dividing the Total Whiteness by total students in the school and multiplying by 100.

Of the only 186 law schools, this analysis only includes the 177 historically white law schools. Historically white law schools are those schools who have historically predominantly served white students many of the schools have histories of excluding traditionally discriminated against racial groups and/or no significant history of proportionately serving those same groups.

Of America's historically white law schools, 61 (34.5%) are over 85% white; 148 schools ( 84.8% )  had Total Whiteness greater than 70%;  27 schools (14.7%) had whiteness below 55%. (Table)

The average (mean) Whiteness was 80.3%; the median 81.4% and the minimum 54.6% and the maximum 96.3%.  There were very minor changes in the mean, median and maximum.  There was significant increase in the minimum (by 25.4 percentage points) but this increase is probably due to dropping the University of Hawaii from the historically white law schools.  57.1% (100) of the schools have whiteness greater than 80%. (Table)

The highest percentage of whiteness was The University of Montana (96.3%); the lowest was St.  Thomas University (54.6%). (Chart)

US News Tiers. Tier designation was based on the 2005 US News & World Report Rankings. The first tier schools  had the lowest average whiteness  (76.6%); the third (85.5%) had the highest. For the  first tier, the median was 75.8%; the median for the third tier was 86.3%. (Table)  These results were statistically significant at a .000 level. That is, there is zero probability that these results occurred by chance. One meaning of these results is that as schools move from the fourth tier to the third they become more white. 

This results is demonstrated even more clearly when you look at how the schools are grouped in the first and third tier. In first tier, 11 schools (21.2%) had less than 70% whiteness; 33 schools (63.5%) had between 70 and  85% whiteness; only 8 schools (15.4%) had over 85% whiteness. While in the third tier,  only 1 school (3.6%) had less than 70% whiteness; only 11 schools (39.3%) whiteness; and, 16 schools (57.1%) had over  85% whiteness. (Table)

The fourth tier had the most schools (32.8%) that were over 85% white and the first tier had the most schools (42.3%) that were less than 70% white. There was only 1 school that was less that 55% white and it was not ranked. (Table)

Public-Private Type. The public-private designation was based on the ABA Section of Legal Education and Admission to the Bar listing. Of the 177 Historically White Law Schools, 105 are private schools and 72 are public schools. Private schools had the lowest average whiteness  (78.9%); and the public schools average whiteness was 82.3%. Similiarly, private schools had the lowest median (79.3%) and public schools had the highest (83.7%).(Table) The difference was statistically significant (p=.015); that is there is less than a 1.5% probability that these results occurred by chance.

43.1% of  public schools were over 85% white compared to only 28.6% of the private schools (Table) Of the schools with over 85% whiteness there were almost evenly divided between private and public schools. However, of the schools with less than 70% whiteness only 34.6% were public schools. (Table)

Regions. Regions are defined according to the ABA/LSAC Official Guide. There are 10 regions.

 

 


Total Whiteness - Grouped 

  Frequency Percent
>= 85.00% 61 34.5
70.00 through 84.99% 89 50.3
55.00 through 69.99% 26 14.7
40.00 through 54.99% 1 .6
<= 39.99%

 

 

[Return]


Changes in Total Whiteness between 2004 and 2005

  2005 2004 Difference

Mean

80.3 79.9 0.4

Median

81.4 81.6 -0.2

Minimum

54.6 29.2 25.4

Maximum

96.3 95.6 0.7

[Return]


Percent of Total Whiteness in
Historically White Law Schools by Tiers

US News Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

1

60.1

92.0

76.6

75.8

52

2

58.8

92.6

80.5

81.0

51

3

62.7

96.3

85.5

86.3

28

4

56.8

94.4

81.9

84.1

41

Total

56.8

96.3

80.5

81.4

172

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

 

ANOVA Table

1586.902

3

528.967

7.733

.000

 

[Return]


Percent of Whiteness in Historically White Law School by Tier
Read Percent across rows

 

>= 85.00%

70.00 through 84.99%

55.00 through 69.99%

40.00 through 54.99

<= 39.99%

 

1st Tier

 

8

33

11

 

 

52

15.4%

63.5%

21.2%

 

 

100.0%

2nd Tier

 

15

29

7

 

 

51

29.4%

56.9%

13.7%

 

 

100.0%

3rd Tier

 

16

11

1

 

 

28

57.1%

39.3%

3.6%

 

 

100.0%

4th Tier

 

20

15

6

 

 

41

48.8%

36.6%

14.6%

 

 

100.0%

No US News Rank

 

2

1

1

1

 

5

40.0%

20.0%

20.0%

20.0%

 

100.0%

Total

 

61

89

26

1

 

177

34.5%

50.3%

14.7%

.6%

 

100.0%

[return]


Percent of Whiteness in Historically White Law School by Tier
Read Percent down columns

 

>= 85.00%

70.00 through 84.99%

55.00 through 69.99%

40.00 through 54.99

<= 39.99

Total 

1st Tier

8

33

11

 

 

52

 

13.1%

37.1%

42.3%

 

 

29.4%

2nd Tier

15

29

7

 

 

51

 

24.6%

32.6%

26.9%

 

 

28.8%

3rd Tier

16

11

1

 

 

28

 

26.2%

12.4%

3.8%

 

 

15.8%

4th Tier

20

15

6

 

 

41

 

32.8%

16.9%

23.1%

 

 

23.2%

No US News Rank

2

1

1

1

 

5

 

3.3%

1.1%

3.8%

100.0%

 

2.8%

 

61

89

26

1

 

177

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

 

 

Pearson Chi-Square

66.310

12

.000

 

 [Return]


Percent of Total Whiteness in
Historically White Law Schools by School Type 

 

Minimum

Maximum

 

Mean

Median

N

Private School

54.6

94.6

78.907

79.300

105

Public School

56.8

96.3

82.251

83.650

72

Total

54.6

96.3

80.267

81.400

177

ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

477.825

1

477.825

5.998

.015

[Return]


Percent of Whiteness in Historically White Law School by Type
Read Percent across rows

 

 

>= 85.00%

70.00 through 84.99%

55.00 through 69.99%

40.00 through 54.99

<= 39.99%

 

Private School

30

57

17

1

 

105

 

28.6%

54.3%

16.2%

1.0%

 

100.0%

Public School

31

32

9

 

 

72

 

43.1%

44.4%

12.5%

 

 

100.0%

 

61

89

26

1

 

177

 

34.5%

50.3%

14.7%

.6%

 

100.0%

[return]


Percent of Whiteness in Historically White Law School by School Type
Read Percent down column

 

>= 85.00%

70.00 through 84.99%

55.00 through 69.99%

40.00 through 54.99

<= 39.99%

 

Private School

30

57

17

1

 

105

 

49.2%

64.0%

65.4%

100.0%

 

59.3%

Public School

31

32

9

 

 

72

 

50.8%

36.0%

34.6%

 

 

40.7%

 

61

89

26

1

 

177

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

100.0%

[return]

Basic Descriptive Statistics for
Percent of Total Whiteness in
Historically White Law Schools by Region
 

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

Great Lakes

66.9

92.1

82.073

83.000

33

Midsouth

69.0

94.4

83.520

84.800

25

Midwest

78.3

92.2

87.125

88.300

12

Mountain West

64.5

96.3

81.727

83.500

11

New England

67.3

92.6

82.164

83.700

14

Northeast

56.8

94.3

77.421

78.350

24

Pacific West

57.0

87.7

71.516

70.400

25

South Central

66.4

88.4

81.063

80.600

16

Southeast

54.6

94.6

80.771

81.500

17

Total

54.6

96.3

80.267

81.400

177

 
 
 
 

Total Visits Since Aug. 31, 2005:
Hit Counter

  

 
 

 


Chapter

TWLS
2005 TWLS
01 Introduction
02 Top Ten
03 LSAT
04 National
05 Regional
06 State
07 Isolation
08 Law Schools

 

Same Level:

[ Total Whiteness ] Alphabetical - Total Whiteness ] Rankings - Total Whiteness ] Excess Whiteness Disparities ] Ranking - Excess Whiteness ] Alphabetical - Excess Whiteness ]

 

Level Below:

 

Level Above: Home ]

 


Always Under Construction!

Always Under Construction!

Last Date Website Updated:
Thursday, October 06, 2005

Copyright @ 2005.
Vernellia Randall.  All Rights Reserved

Contact Information
Professor Vernellia R. Randall
The University of Dayton School of Law
300 College Park
Dayton, OH 45469-2772

Email

 

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, some material on this website is provided for comment, background information, research and/or educational purposes only, without permission from the copyright owner(s), under the "fair use" provisions of the federal copyright laws. These materials may not be distributed for other purposes without permission of the copyright owner(s).