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University of Dayton
Ryan C. Harris Learning Teaching Center

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The Writing Process

When students write from readings, they typically engage in the following steps. To improve the quality of their reading and writing, teachers can intervene at any stage in the process to offer instruction or foster reflection.

  1. Pre-reading
    • Preview structure of text
    • Examine assumptions about topic and author
    • Make predictions

  2. Reading
    • Actively reading the text
    • Asking questions
    • Annotating and note taking

  3. Rereading/Prewriting
    • Reviewing the text with the assignment in mind
    • Locating material in text that might help write the paper

  4. Prewriting
    • Organizing material for the paper
    • Analyzing the rhetorical situation of the assignment (audience, purpose, intention)

  5. Drafting
    • Writing the first draft of the paper
    • Making decisions about content, structure, and language

  6. Rewriting
    • Reviewing and revising the paper
    • Proofreading the paper
    • Checking paper against source texts for accuracy, correctness, and fairness