Psychology 21602:
Elementary Statistics

Have a Great Winter Break:
12/11/2013
I hope you have a great winter break! Class Grades:
12/11/2013
Sum your three exam scores which are available from Isidore. Page one of the syllabus has the cut offs for each letter grade. For those who took the final exam with the class, the mean number of points earned in the class was 84.7% with a standard deviation of 6.3%. The range was 98.8%  77% = 21.8%. The following histogram shows the frequency of each letter grade in the class. Final Exam Grades:
12/11/2013
Grades for the final exam are available from Isidore. For those who took the exam with the class, the mean was 81.9 with a standard deviation of 11.4. The range was 100  63 = 37. The following histogram shows the frequency of each letter grade on the exam. The Final Exam Is on 12/10:
12/2/2013
Reposted from 11/14/2013 The final exam is from 2:30 to 4:20 PM on Tuesday, December 10. It covers chapters 12 through 17 of the textbook and classes from 10/25 to 12/4. You should be preparing for the exam  read the book, review your notes, do the homework, take the sample quizzes, and do sample problems. There is too much material to try to cram it all in during the day or two (or even the week) before the exam. When you have questions, let me know. Some of the material on the final exam is the most difficult in the course. I will have only about one class period for review for the final exam. Please plan accordingly. The study guide and formula sheet for the final exam are available. Answers for Assignment 17:
12/2/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 17 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 17:
11/25/2013
The quiz for chapter 17 is available. Assignment for Chapter 17:
11/25/2013
The assignment for chapter 17 is here. Using SPSS for χ^{2} Tests:
11/25/2013
The SPSS instructions for χ^{2} tests of goodness of fit and independece use this data set. Practice for χ^{2} Tests:
11/25/2013
You can generate data for and see worked solutions to the χ^{2} goodness of fit test and to the χ^{2} test for independence. Answers for Assignment 16:
11/25/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 16 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 16:
11/20/2013
The quiz for chapter 16 is available. Assignment for Chapter 16:
11/20/2013
The assignment for chapter 16 is here. Part of the homework asks you to use the class data set which is available from the list of links on the left side of the home page for the course. We will likely go over how to use SPSS for regression on Friday. The assignment does not ask to you calculate the slope and intercept by hand. It would be useful to be able to do so for the final exam. I encourage you to practice doing so, either with the practice problem generator (see below) or with the class data set; that is, do the two regression problems on the assignment both with SPSS and by hand. When calculating ΣX and ΣX^{2} it is sometimes helpful to use SPSS or Excel. This set of instructions will show you how to get those sums in either SPSS or in Excel. SPSS and Practice for Regression:
11/20/2013
The SPSS instructions for regression are the same as those for correlation and use the same data set. The page for practice with regression is the same as for correlation. Answers for Assignment 15:
11/20/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 15 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Practice for Correlation:
11/18/2013
This page allows you to generate data for correlations and to see the worked solution for that data. SPSS Instructions for Correlation:
11/18/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for correlation are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. The Final Exam Is on 12/10:
11/14/2013
The final exam is from 2:30 to 4:20 PM on Tuesday, December 10. It covers chapters 12 through 17 of the textbook and classes from 10/25 to 12/4. You should be preparing for the exam  read the book, review your notes, do the homework, take the sample quizzes, and do sample problems. There is too much material to try to cram it all in during the day or two (or even the week) before the exam. When you have questions, let me know. Some of the material on the final exam is the most difficult in the course. I will have only about one class period for review for the final exam. Please plan accordingly. The study guide and formula sheet for the final exam are available. Quiz for Chapter 15:
11/14/2013
The quiz for chapter 15 is available. Assignment for Chapter 15:
11/14/2013
The assignment for chapter 15 is here. Part of the homework asks you to use the class data set which is available from the list of links on the left side of the home page for the course. We will likely go over how to use SPSS for correlation next Monday. Answers for Assignment 14:
11/14/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 14 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 14:
11/10/2013
The quiz for chapter 14 is available. Assignment for Chapter 14:
11/10/2013
The assignment for chapter 14 is here. Part of the homework asks you to enter data in SPSS. You will need to create three variables in SPSS  one for factor A (gender), one for factor B (treatments) and one for the dependent variable. For each score in the table, you will need to enter three things  the gender of the person, the treatment that they received (1, 2 or 3) and the value of the dependent variable (the number in the table.) SPSS Instructions for Factorial ANOVA:
11/10/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for factorial (independent samples) ANOVA are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. Practice for Independent Samples Factorial ANOVA:
11/8/2013
This page allows you to generate data for an independent samples, factorial ANOVA and to see the worked solution for that data. Practice for Completing Independent Samples, Factorial ANOVA Summary Tables:
11/8/2013
This page allows you to practice completing an independent samples, factorial ANOVA summary table and to see the worked solution. Practice with Main Effects and Interactions:
11/6/2013
If you want extra practice detecting main effects and interactions, these two resources should help. The first presents a table or graph of the results of a factorial study and asks you to identify whether the main effects and interaction are likely present. Worked out answers are available. The second asks you to supply a missing value in a table of the results to either create or remove a main effect or interaction. Answers for Assignment 13:
11/5/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 13 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Monday, 11/4, Is the Last Day to Withdraw:
11/4/2013
Monday, November 4 is the last day to drop classes (with a record of W.) You need both your instructor's signature and your advisor's signature on the drop form. Assignment for Chapter 13:
11/4/2013
The assignment for chapter 13 is here. Part of the assignment asks you to enter data. For problem 9 in the textbook, you will need to create three variables  one for each of the three treatments. For each participant, you will type three values. For example, for participant A in the data set, you would type the value "1" (without quotes) in the column for the first treatment, the value "1" (without the quotes) in the column for the second treatment, and the value "4" (without the quotes) in the column for the third treatment. Instructions for creating variables and entering data are available from the post on 10/15 called Assignment for Chapter 11. Question 11 in the textbook has the same basic layout. While the assignment does not ask you to compute the ANOVA by hand, it would be instructive to do so to see if you can match the SPSS output. Since we went over how to calculate the ANOVA in class, it would be reasonable to put such a question on the final exam. Quiz for Chapter 13:
11/4/2013
The quiz for chapter 13 is available. SPSS Instructions for Repeated Measures ANOVA:
11/4/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for repeated measures ANOVA are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. Practice for Repeated Measures ANOVA:
11/4/2013
This page allows you to generate data for a repeated measures ANOVA and to see the worked solution for that data. Practice for Completing Repeated Measures ANOVA Summary Tables:
11/4/2013
This page allows you to practice completing a repeated measures ANOVA summary table and to see the worked solution. Answers for Assignment 12:
11/1/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 12 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 12:
10/30/2013
The quiz for chapter 12 is available. Assignment for Chapter 12:
10/30/2013
The assignment for chapter 12 is here. Part of the assignment asks you to enter data. You will need to create two variables  one for the IV (type of bird) and one for the DV (brain size). For each bird, you will type two values. For example, for the first bird in the data set, you would type the value "1" (without quotes) in the IV column, the value "18" (without the quotes) in the DV column. Instructions for creating variables and entering data are available from the post on 10/15 called Assignment for Chapter 11. While the assignment does not ask you to compute the ANOVA, it would be instructive to do so to see if you can match the SPSS output. Since we went over how to calculate the ANOVA in class, it would be reasonable to put such a question on the final exam. SPSS Instructions for Independent Samples ANOVA:
10/30/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for an independent samples ANOVA are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. Practice for IndependentSamples ANOVA:
10/30/2013
This page allows you to generate data for an independent samples ANOVA and to see the worked solution for that data. This page does the same thing but follows the computational approach I used in class instead of the one used in the book. As long as sample sizes are equal, both approaches will yield the same results. Practice for Completing IndependentSamples ANOVA Summary Tables:
10/30/2013
This page allows you to practice completing an independentsamples ANOVA summary table and to see the worked solution. Exam 2 Grades:
10/23/2013
Grades for exam 2 are available from Isidore. For those who took the exam, the mean was 78.2 with a standard deviation of 14.1. The range was 100  45 = 55. The following histogram shows the frequency of each letter grade on the exam. Practice for RelatedSamples / Repeated Measures tTests:
10/21/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability for doing relatedsamples / repeated measures ttests. You can also see the worked solution. Answers for Assignment 11:
10/21/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 11 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. SPSS Instructions for Two Related Samples tTest:
10/15/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for a two related samples ttest are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. Assignment for Chapter 11:
10/15/2013
The assignment for chapter 11 is here. I made it available early because of the approaching exam. The assignment asks you to enter data into SPSS. Instructions for doing so are avaialable. Quiz for Chapter 11:
10/15/2013
The quiz for chapter 11 is available. Given the rapidly approaching date of the exam, I'm making the quiz available a little early. Practice for Independent Samples tTests:
10/15/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability for doing independent samples ttests. You can also see the worked solution. Answers for Assignment 10:
10/15/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 10 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 10:
10/14/2013
The quiz for chapter 10 is available. Assignment for Chapter 10:
10/14/2013
The assignment for chapter 10 is here (Microsoft Word format). We will finish SPSS for independent samples ttests on Wednesday, but you can read the instructions (below) to finish the assignment before then if you want. The class data set in the last questions is available from the Data Set link in the list of links on the left. Females have the value of 1 and males have the value of 2 for the gender variable in the data set. For question six, the phd variable indicates whether the person said that they do not (value 0) or do (value 1) intend to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. SPSS Instructions for Two Independent Samples t Test:
10/14/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for a two independent samples ttest are available here. The SPSS data set used in the sample is here. Practice for OneSample tTests:
10/9/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability for doing onesample ttests. You can also see the worked solution. Exam 2 Is on 10/23:
10/9/2013
The second exam will be given on Wednesday, October 23. It covers chapters 8 through 11 of the textbook and the lectures from September 25 through October 21. You should be preparing for the exam  read the book, review your notes, do the homework, take the sample quizzes, and do sample problems. There is too much material to try to cram it all in during the day or two (or even the week) before the exam. When you have questions, let me know. The material on exam 2 is more difficult than the material on exam 1. I will not have much class time for review for exam 2. Please plan accordingly. The study guide and formula sheet for exam 2 are available. Answers for Assignment 9:
10/9/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 9 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 9:
10/7/2013
The quiz for chapter 9 is available. Assignment for Chapter 9:
10/7/2013
The assignment for chapter 9 is here (Microsoft Word format). We may not get to SPSS for onesample ttests until Wednesday. The class data set in the last question is available from the Data Set link in the list of links on the left. Using SPSS for OneSample tTests:
10/7/2013
Instructions for using SPSS for onesample ttest and the sample data set are available. Answers for Assignment 8:
10/4/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 8 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Quiz for Chapter 8:
10/1/2013
The quiz for chapter 8 is available. Assignment for Chapter 8:
10/1/2013
The assignment for chapter 8 is here (Microsoft Word format). Practice for Calculating the Power of zscore Tests:
10/1/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability for calculating the power of a zscore test. You can also see the worked solution. Demonstration of Type I Errors, Type II Errors and Statistical Power:
9/27/2013
This page allows you to vary the decision criterion, the treatment effect and sample size to see how each affects α, β, and statistical power. Practice for zscore Tests:
9/27/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability for doing zscore tests. You can also see the worked solution. Exam 1 Grades:
9/23/2013
Grades for exam 1 are available from Isidore. The mean was 82.2 with a standard deviation of 13.2. The range was 96.5  48.5 = 48. The following histogram shows the frequency of each letter grade on the exam.
This is by far the easiest of the three exams. The material gets progressively harder from here. If you did well on this exam, keep up what you have been doing but you may need to spend even more time on the material. If you got a low B or below on this exam, you need to figure out what went wrong and correct it now. Be sure to read the textbook before coming to lecture, do the homework problems, quizzes, and sample calculations on a regular basis. When you have questions, be sure to ask. My past experience with people who did poorly on the first exam is that they are likely to do very poorly on the remaining exams. I encourage the couple of you who got a grade below C on the exam to consider dropping the course and trying again next semester. If you do not drop the course, you will need to work really hard not only to master the coming material but to sufficiently learn the material from the first exam which you need for the upcoming material. Answers for Assignment 7:
9/18/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 7 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know. Formula Sheet for Exam 1:
9/16/2013
The exam will include this formula sheet. Quiz for Chapter 7:
9/16/2013
The quiz for chapter 7 is available. Assignment for Chapter 7:
9/16/2013
The assignment for chapter 7 is here (Microsoft Word format). Study Guide for Exam 1:
9/16/2013
You can use the study guide for exam 1 as part of your preparation for the first exam. It is not an exhaustive list of all topics that might be on the exam. Answers for Assignment 6:
9/13/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 6 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! SPSS:
9/11/2013
I forgot to tell you how to use SPSS for descriptive statistics. I will go over that on Friday. Here are instructions. The data set we will use is here. Installing SPSS:
9/11/2013
I strongly encourage you to install SPSS on your computers. It is available from https://software.udayton.edu. Once you have logged on, click on the All Available Software link. The lab uses version IBM SPSS 20, so install that version if it available in the list. After you agree to the terms and conditions, another option will appear that has a check box next to the words "Product Key". Click in the check box. Another box will appear at the bottom that says "Retrieve Product Key". Click in that box. You need the product key to activate SPSS. Mac people  while there is a Mac version of SPSS, UD did not buy the site license for it and thus you cannot download it from software.udayton.edu. You can either use the lab computers or install Apple's Boot Camp which will allow you to boot your Mac into Windows and then install SPSS. You will need a copy of Windows to use Boot Camp. The UD TechShop sells Windows installation disks at a reasonable price. Quiz for Chapter 6:
9/11/2013
The quiz for chapter 6 is available. Assignment for Chapter 6:
9/11/2013
The assignment for chapter 6 is here (Microsoft Word format). Exam 1 Is on 9/23:
9/9/2013
The first exam will be given on Monday, September 23. It covers chapters 1 through 7 of the textbook and the lectures from August 21 through September 20. You should be preparing for the exam  read the book, review your notes, do the homework, take the sample quizzes, and do sample problems. There is too much material to try to cram it all in during the day or two (or even the week) before the exam. When you have questions, let me know. Practice for Probability Problems:
9/9/2013
This page will generate sample problems to test your ability of doing probabilities with normal distributions. You can also see the worked solution. Answers for Assignment 5:
9/9/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 5 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! Practice for zScores:
9/6/2013
On the first exam you will need to know how to transform raw scores to zscores and vice versa. This page will generate sample problems to test your ability of doing raw score to zscores and back. You can also see the worked solution. Answers for Assignment 4:
9/6/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 4 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! Quiz for Chapter 5:
9/6/2013
The quiz for chapter 5 is available. Assignment for Chapter 5:
9/6/2013
The assignment for chapter 5 is here (Microsoft Word format). Practice for Descriptive Statistics:
9/4/2013
The first exam you will need to know how to calculate the descriptive statistics that we have talked about. This page will generate sample data for which you can calculate the sum of squares (SS) and then see the worked solution. This page will generate sample data for which you can calculate the mean, median, mode, range, interquartile range, sample and population standard deviation and variance. You can also see the worked solution. You should generate data, calculate the statistics, and compare your answers to the worked solutions until you are very comfortable with the calculations and confident that you can do similar problems on the exam in a limited amount of time (less than 10 minutes for a sample size of 10 for doing all of the following showing your work: mean, median, mode, range, interquartile range, variance of a population, variance of a sample, standard deviation of a population, standard deviation of a sample). Quiz for Chapter 4:
9/4/2013
The quiz for chapter 4 is available. Assignment for Chapter 4:
9/4/2013
The assignment for chapter 4 is here (Microsoft Word format). I will probably post the answers on Friday. Have a Great Labor Day Weekend!:
8/30/2013
Enjoy the long weekend. Be safe and careful. Take a moment to remember the purpose of the holiday. Slide 8 of Dispersion Lecture:
8/30/2013
I corrected the error on slide 8 of the dispersion lecture and have posted an updated copy of the lecture notes. If you previously printed the lecture notes, be sure to update the material on slide 8. Answers for Assignment 3:
8/30/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 3 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! Quiz for Chapter 3:
8/28/2013
The quiz for chapter 3 is available. Assignment for Chapter 3:
8/28/2013
The assignment for chapter 3 is here (Microsoft Word format). I will probably post the answers on Friday. Answers for Assignment 2:
8/28/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 2 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! Quiz for Chapter 2:
8/26/2013
You can take the quiz for chapter 2 at any time. You can take the quiz multiple times. When you are done, click on the Check Answers button at the bottom of the quiz. If you missed one or more questions, a popup box will give you the correct answer for each question. When you get a question wrong, you will learn more if you try to figure out why that answer is incorrect and why the given answer is correct. If you have questions about a question, you can ask me about it at the start of class. Be sure to write down the question id number (qid) that is given in the popup box. I will need the qid in order to see that particular question when you ask about it. Assignment for Chapter 2:
8/26/2013
The assignment for chapter 2 is here (Microsoft Word format). I will post the answers no later than Friday. Answers for Assignment 1:
8/26/2013
You should compare your answers for assignment 1 to my answers. If you have questions, please let me know! Questionnaire:
8/12/2013
Some of the data that we will analyze this semester will come from you. Visit the questionnaire before next class period and fill out and submit the short form. Quiz for Chapter 1:
8/12/2013
Quizzes in this class are neither graded, turned in, nor counted toward your grade in the class. The purpose of the quizzes is for you to get feedback about whether you are mastering the content in the class. The quizzes are a sample of the material covered in the book and in class; do not assume that just because you did well on a quiz that you have mastered everything. The quizzes will help you the most if you try them on a regular basis. Do not wait until just before an exam to take the quizzes. You can take the first quiz at any time. You can take the quiz multiple times. When you are done, click on the Check Answers button at the bottom of the quiz. If you missed one or more questions, a popup box will give you the correct answer for each question. When you get a question wrong, you will learn more if you try to figure out why that answer is incorrect and why the given answer is correct. If you have questions about a question, you can ask me about it at the start of class. Be sure to write down the question id number (qid) that is given in the popup box. I will need the qid in order to see that particular question when you ask about it. Assignment for Chapter 1:
8/12/2013
Like quizzes, assignments in this class are neither graded, turned in, nor counted toward your grade in the class. The purpose of the assignments is for you to get feedback about whether you are mastering the content in the class. A class period or two after I post the assignment, I will post the worked answers to the assignment for you to compare your work to. If you have questions about an assignment question, please let me know. Waiting until the week before the exam to do the assignments is a really bad idea. The assignment for chapter 1 is here (Microsoft Word format). Lecture Notes:
8/12/2013
Copies of the PowerPoint slides are available from the Today link in the list of links on the left. You may need to scroll up or down on the Today page to find the lecture notes for a given chapter. It is your responsibility to print out the lecture notes (if you want them). I will not go slow enough during class for you to copy down everything that is displayed by the projector. Spending your class time copying the notes is a poor use of your time. Rather, listen and write additional notes in your own words. The Textbook:
8/12/2013
The textbook is Gravetter and Wallnau's Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 9^{th} edition. The book is required for the course. If you don't like the price of the book at the bookstore, cheaper options are available at the publisher's web site or through the UD Textbook Comparison Shopping tool. If you are using an online bookseller, make sure you search for ISBN: 9781111830991. You need the book now  pay for the one or two day shipping. Welcome!:
8/12/2013
Welcome to PSY 216, Elementary Statistics. This will be a very important class in your undergraduate career as a psychologist in training. Why? First, you need a strong background in statistics in order to do well in PSY 217, Experimental Psychology and to understand the results of studies that are presented in content classes. But more importantly, statistics allow psychologist to interpret the results of studies. These results often improve our theories of psychological phenomena and improve the treatments that we can offer people with psychological disorders. Even psychologists who do not perform studies need to understand statistics, as psychologists are ethically obliged by the American Psychological Association to stay current in their areas of expertise; to do so requires reading journal articles which often contain the results of statistical analysis of data. Even if you will never be a psychologist, statistical expertise is a characteristic that employers look for when they interview psychology majors for jobs. I hope that you enjoy the semester and our exploration of elementary statistics (yes  there are many other statistical methods that are much more advanced that what we will cover. Some of them you will learn about in graduate school  most Ph.D. programs in Psychology require at least one year of graduate course work in statistics.) Don't get behind in class, and ask questions when you have them. 