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Racial Discrimination in Health Care and CERD

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Vernellia R. Randall
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Vernellia R. Randall, 

Racial Discrimination in Health Care in the United States as a Violation Of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, [a1] 14 University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy 45-91 (Fall, 2002)

  *46 "Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and the most inhuman."(1)

 

Equal access to quality health care is a crucial issue facing the United States.(2) For too long, too many Americans have been denied equal access to quality health care on the basis of race, ethnicity, and gender.(3) Cultural incompetence of health care providers, socioeconomic inequities, disparate impact of facially neutral practices and policies, misunderstanding of civil rights laws, and intentional discrimination contribute to disparities in health status, access to health care services, participation in health research, and *47 receipt of health care financing.(4) This disparity in health care is doubly significant given the devastating racial disparity in health status that exists. The combination of racial disparity in health status(5), institutional racism in health care(6) and inadequate legal protection(7) points to serious human rights violations(8) under the "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination"(CERD or Convention).(9) 

 

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ICERD
Racial Disparity in Health Status
Institutional Racism in US Health Care
Inadequacy of Legal Efforts
US Violations of ICERD
Recommendations and Conclusions
Appendix A US Report
Appendix B White Shadow Report Excerpts
Appendix C: Concluding Remarks 1475th CERD Meeting
Appendix D Concluding Observations

 

FNa1]. This Article is based on the Health Policy discussion of "The White Privilege Shadow Report" which was submitted to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) committee. The primary modification has been to add a discussion section about the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, to add more citations and to include relevant appendices.

[FNaa1]. Professor of Law, University of Dayton School of Law; J.D., Northwestern School of Law Lewis and Clark College, 1987; M.S.N., University of Washington, 1978; B.S.N., University of Texas, 1972. Thanks to Makani Themba- Nixon whose visions on race and health care inspires me, who provided me with significant professional input, and who did an incredible job editing the original shadow report. Thanks to my sister Brenda Randall, my brothers James Ernest Randall and Jerry Randall and to my sons, Tshaka Randall and Issa Randall, without their continuing support this Article would not exist.

1. [FN1]. This often cited quote is attributed to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. However, I have been unable to locate the original source.

2. [FN2]. See, e.g., UNEQUAL TREATMENT: CONFRONTING RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH CARE, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, COMMITTEE ON UNDERSTANDING AND ELIMINATING RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH CARE, (Brian D. Smedley et al. eds., 2002) [hereinafter IOM REPORT]; U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS, THE HEALTH CARE CHALLENGE: ACKNOWLEDGING DISPARITY, CONFRONTING DISCRIMINATION, AND ENSURING EQUALITY, VOLUME I, THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES 287 (1999) [hereinafter U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS I].

3. [FN3]. See, e.g., W. MICHAEL BYRD & LINDA A. CLAYTON, AN AMERICAN HEALTH DILEMMA: A MEDICAL HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND THE PROBLEM OF RACE: BEGINNINGS TO 1900 (2000) [hereinafter BYRD & CLAYTON, AN AMERICAN DILEMMA I]; W. MICHAEL BYRD & LINDA A. CLAYTON, AN AMERICAN HEALTH DILEMMA: A MEDICAL HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND THE PROBLEM OF RACE: 1900 TO PRESENT (2002) [hereinafter BYRD & CLAYTON, AN AMERICAN DILEMMA II); U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS I, supra note 2.

4. [FN4]. See, e.g., U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS I, supra note 2; U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS, ACKNOWLEDGING DISPARITY, CONFRONTING DISCRIMINATION, AND ENSURING EQUALITY, VOLUME II: THE ROLE OF FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT 438 (1999) [hereinafter U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS II].

5. [FN5]. U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS I, supra note 2; U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS II, supra note 4.

6. [FN6]. Supra note 5.

7. [FN7]. Id.

8. [FN8]. Id.

9. [FN9]. There has been a long history of appealing to the international community to attempt to address domestic race issues. See, e.g., Henry J. Richardson, III, Gulf Crisis and African-American Interests Under International Law, 87 AM. J. INT'L L. 42, 71-72 (1993); Gay J. McDougall, Toward a Meaningful International Regime: The Domestic Relevance of International Efforts to Eliminate All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 40 HOW. L.J. 571 (1997).

 

 
Related Pages:
Home ] Up ] The Human Right to Health ] Shadow Report to CERD on Health ] Health and WCAR ] Racism Health and Sustainable Development ] [ Racial Discrimination in Health Care and CERD ]
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Home ] Up ] ICERD ] Racial Disparity in Health Status ] Institutional Racism in US Health Care ] Inadequacy of Legal Efforts ] US Violations of ICERD ] Recommendations and Conclusions ] Appendix A US Report ] Appendix B White Shadow Report Excerpts ] Appendix C: Concluding Remarks 1475th CERD Meeting ] Appendix D Concluding Observations ]
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Professor Vernellia R. Randall
Institute on Race, Health Care and the Law
The University of Dayton School of Law
300 College Park 
Dayton, OH 45469-2772
Email: randall@udayton.edu

 

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 03/10/2010

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