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Prof. Randall


 For each essay exam, multistate exam, and performance exam, 
bullet develop a key word/ list of essential critical terms or phrase you must know for the bar.
bulletkeep the list to 50 to 100 keyword or phrases. 
bullet Define the key terms. 
bullet Put your key terms on flash cards which will make it easier for you to practice them at odd times and places.
bulletConsider using memorylifter ( It is an excellent flashcard tool for helping to memorize information. It is easy to use; and best of all, its free.
The need for drill & practice software
1. The need for repetition  
  The forgetting curve  
  There is a lot of evidence supporting the notion that repetition is necessary to prevent the effects of forgetting. This can be exemplified by so-called "forgetting curves", like the ones you can see in the picture.

In our example, only one day after learning new material, up to 50% of that material is virtually forgotten (red curve), i.e. it cannot be brought to mind without help.

But if you review the same material one day later, your memory trace will deepen, and hence the new forgetting curve will be less steep (green curve, first from the left). Additional repetitions may be spaced more and more, since the forgetting curve gets flatter with every session.

Of course, the slope of a forgetting curve depends on many variables, but if you want to beat it, it is clear that you will have to
schedule periodical reviews.

Now, when trying to achieve this goal, you will be confronted with one obstacle: you cannot review
all of your materials again and again. See the next section for a solution.
2. The need for flashcards  
In certain English-speaking countries, so-called
flash cards made of paper or cardboard are used in schools as a learning aid. Although flashcards are used mostly for reference purposes, you can think of a more sophisticated application than this: you can make each card bear a question and an answer (the latter should be written overleaf) and use them to test yourself by trying to recall the answers. Paper flashcards are often been used in this manner for learning vocabulary, historical dates, and mathematical formulas.

But even further, since flashcards present the information fragmented, they give you a chance to
establish priorities by gradually setting aside the flashcards you already know. That would prevent you from wasting time with long-known material. Let us explain a smart but simple procedure for this purpose.

                               You know the right answer
Leitner's learning machine
You can't recall the answer
  In the early 1970s, the German psychologist Sebastian Leitner described a 'learning machine' (Lernmaschine, Lernkartei, Karteikasten) in a book he wrote for young students.

Leitner's machine consists of five or more compartments (slots, pigeonholes). It works as follows: the user tests theirself on a flashcard contained in one of the pigeonholes. The flashcard is promoted to the next compartment if the question on it is answered correctly by the user, and, on the contrary, it is put back into the
first compartment in case of failure.

Thus, this "learning cardfile" gives positive
feedback about the present state of the user's knowledge at any time: the lowest pigeonholes contain the hardest stuff, and the highest pigeonholes contain items that have been reviewed successfully several times.

This overall view allows the user to
set their own priorities without any major planning or scheduling efforts -- simply by choosing the appropriate pigeonhole.

Another advantages of this method are that it is
incorruptible and that learning is fairly stress-free.

Now, you may argue that it
is very awkward to cut out and label paper flashcards. You are absolutely right. That is why many developers have implemented this principle into computer programs. This website contains a collection of reviews of more than 200 "flashcard programs", most of which you can download from the Internet.