86. FN86. Myers & McCaulley, supra note 57,
at 2, 13. Jung saw extraversion and introversion as "mutually complementary"
attitudes. The differences generated "the tension that both the individual
and society need for the maintenance of life." Id. at 2. See also McCaulley,
supra note 56.
87. FN87. With only 25% of the general population
introverted, this sample of first year law students was more introverted.
Myers & McCaulley, supra note 57, at 45.
However, this sample of first year law students was more introverted
than law students in a previous study, less introverted than practicing
lawyers, and more introverted than judges. See Frank L. Natter, The Human
Factor: Psychological Type in Legal Education, 3 Res. in Psychol. Type
55, 56 (1981) (reporting data gathered by Miller in 1965 and 1967. Forty-five
percent of 2248 law students from five different schools were introverted);
Myers & McCaulley, supra note 57, at 245-46 (reporting that 54.91%
of 519 lawyers and judges were introverted with 58.67% of 271 lawyers being
introverted and 46.875% of 128 judges being introverted); Larry Richard,
The Lawyer Types, A.B.A. J., July 1993, at 74, 75.) (reporting that 57%
of all lawyers were introverted with 59% of male lawyers and 51% of female
lawyers being introverted).
As to the level of preference, a smaller percentage of extraverts (50.6%)
than introverts (57.3%) had a clear/very clear preference for their index.
However, the difference is not statistically significant (p = .716). Myers
& McCaulley, supra note 57, at 59 (reporting the level of preference
for 32,671 individuals with 47.08% extraverts having a clear or very clear
preference and 48.54% introverts having a clear or very clear preference).
88. FN88. Continuous scores are a linear transformation
of preference scores. The lower the score (minimum is 33) the stronger
the preference for extraversion; the higher the score (maximum is 167)
the stronger the preference for introversion. A score of 100 is a median
score showing no preference for either extraversion or introversion.
On extraversion-introversion continuous score, the mean score for the
class was 99.84 -- a slight preference for extraversion; males had a mean
score of 102.98 (a preference for introversion); females had a mean score
of 95.42 (a preference for extraversion); whites had a mean score of 99.63
(essentially no preference); and, students of color had a mean score of
101.53 (a preference for introversion). Appendix, Table B3.
89. FN89. In other studies, extraverted high school
students scored lower grades than introverted high school students on several
academic measures. McCaulley & Natter, supra note 63, at 138. However,
the overall grade point average was higher for extraverted students than
introverted students. Id. at 138. These findings may not be totally inconsistent
with the findings of this study, since overall grades in high school are
based on many courses that require activity and value class participation.
90. FN90. Jensen, supra note 51, at 183; cf. A.B.
Smith and R. Irey, Personality Variables and the Improvement of College
Teaching, (E.R.I.C. Doc. Rep. Serv. No. Ed 096313) (April 1974) (noting
that extraverts more often than introverts chose learning activities which
involved dialogue with advanced students).
91. FN91. Jensen, supra note 51, at 183; McCaulley
and Natter, supra note 63, at 150.
92. FN92. Jensen, supra note 51, at 184.
93. FN93. Id. Jung called introverts "prometheans"
(Greek for "fore-thinkers") because they do most of their thinking before
they act. See also McCaulley, supra note 56.
94. FN94. See McCaulley and Natter, supra note 63,
at 152 (reporting that introverted students not only prefer to think before
acting, but that they may hesitate to act at all).
95. FN95. See id. at 153 (reporting that introverted
students tend to be underestimated in the classroom).
96. FN96. Jensen, supra note 51, at 184.
97. FN97. McCaulley & Natter, supra note 63,
98. FN98. Lawrence, supra note 50, at 7, 12 (citing
Martray, An Empirical Investigation into Learning Styles and Retention
Patterns of Various Personality Types, (1972) 32 Dissertation Abstracts
Int'l. 5043A and noting that Introverted students prefer reading and verbal
reasoning as opposed to psychomotor activities); cf. McCaulley and Natter,
supra note 63, at 152.
99. FN99. Jensen, supra note 51, at 183; cf., Lawrence,
supra note 50, at 7; Jeffery L. Hoffman et al., Personality Types and Computer
Assisted Instruction in a Self-paced Technical Training Environment, 3
Res. Psycol. Type 81, 85 (1981) (noting that introverts prefer working
100. FN100. McCaulley & Natter, supra note
63, at 152.
101. FN101. Id. at 152.
102. FN102. Jensen, supra note 51, at 183. Jung
refers to extraverts as "epimetheans" (Greek for "after-thinkers") because
thinking while acting or after acting is how extraverts think best. See
also McCaulley, supra note 56.
103. FN103. Jensen, supra note 51, at 183; Lawrence,
supra note 50, at 12.
104. FN104. Cf. Hoffman, supra note 99 (noting
that high dropout rate of extraverted students decreased significantly
when course was changed to include the option of several students working
together and to increase the frequency of question- discussion sessions);
Mary H. McCaulley & Frank L. Natter, Psychological (Myers-Briggs) Type
Differences in Education in The Governor's Taskforce on Disruptive Youth:
Phase II Report (Frank L. Natter & Stephen A. Rollin eds., 1974) (reporting
that there was a significant correlation (p<.01) with extraverts and
their expressed preference for working with a group on a project).
105. FN105. McCaulley & Natter, supra note
63, at 151.
106. FN106. Jensen, supra note 51, at 184; McCaulley
& Natter, supra note 63, at 150.
107. FN107. McCaulley & Natter, supra note
63, at 150.
108. FN108. Id. at 150.
109. FN109. Although one alternative for legal
education might be to make oral examinations more available. Steven I.
Friedland, Towards the Legitimacy of Oral Examinations in American Legal
Education, 39 Syracuse L. Rev. 616-27 (1988).
110. FN110. McCaulley & Natter, supra note
63, at 151.