Race, Racism and the Law
"Speaking Truth to Power"

Whitest Public Law Schools (LSAC Applications)

The 2004 Whitest Law Schools Report
The Top Ten Whitest Law Schools in the United States
Prologue:
I grew up in Texas during Jim Crow.  During that time going on long distance road trips had a distinct flavor for Blacks and I remember it vividly - the packing enough food for the entire trip (no restaurants), the using the bathroom on the side of the road (no gas station bathrooms), the sleeping in the car on the side of the road (no motels). But my most vivid memory of my road trips in Texas was the sign I read every time we went through Greenville, Texas -
The Blackest Land,
The Whitest People
In many ways institutional discrimination in law schools is really about  maintaining the legal profession as "The Whitest Profession". 

Professor Vernellia Randall

Note: Whiteness is defined as caucasian plus unknown.

 

Top Ten Whitest Public Law School
Based on Excess Whiteness
State LSAC Applications**

(Ranking Numbers) (Alphabetical Listing)
Rank School State Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 26.2%
2 University of Baltimore  MD 25.5%
3 University of Maryland  MD 23.2%
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 23.2%
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 22.6%
6 Georgia State University  GA 22.2%
7 Golden Gate University CA 22.1%
8 University of Georgia  GA 21.9%
9 University of Houston  TX 21.4%
10 University at Buffalo NY 21.1%
10 University of Mississippi  MS 21.1%

Discussion  
bulletPublic law schools are supported by the taxes of the citizens of their state. They have a responsibility to serve all the citizens.  
bullet This listing ranks the public law schools on whether they are serving white citizens better than the rest of their state population. 
bullet

Specifically, excess whiteness in law school was calculated  using two different base populations. 

bullet First,  using the population of the state 21-39 years old.  Second, using the law school applications as a basis. 
bulletThis page report is based on LSAC Applications from the state. Specifically, excess whiteness was calculated by taking the based LSAC state applications and calculated % of the applications that were from white applicants  and subtracting the "%whiteness in the law school" from it. 
bulletLSAC State Applications does not represent the application pool to a particular institution but the number of applicants in the general pool who listed the state as their home.  The actual applicant pool to a particular state could be significant different. (note added: 04/16/04)
bullet The greater the disparity the higher the rank. Ranking is based on excess whiteness not actual percentage of white students.  That is the disparity between the percentage of whites in the law school from the percentage of whites in the LSAC state applications.
bullet So, for example, Texas Tech has 85.7% white students. In 2002 there was 6797 LSAC applications from the state of Texas. Of those applications, 4043 or 59.5% were from white applicants .   Consequently, the disparity (excess whiteness) between whiteness in the student body and in the state application pool is  26.2 percentage points. That is, based on the LSAC applications from the state, only 59.5% of Texas Tech Student body should be white.
bullet While there are a number of reasons why the disparity exist, where the difference is significant, a state has to be concern about whether its public institutions are preparing a group of lawyers to match the racial diversity of its population.
Descriptive Statistics (Historically White Law Schools)
bulletFor the seventy-four public law schools, the average excess whiteness based on LSAC State Applications is 9.86 percentage points; half of the schools have excess whiteness below 9.55 percentage points.  In fact, 9 (12.2%) have no excess whiteness and  another 15 (20.3%)  have less than 5.00 percentage points excess whiteness.  For example, if a LSAC State Applications was 50% white, the average law school would have whiteness 59.86 %  (9.86 Excess Whiteness Percentage Points)
bullet On the other hand 24 (31.4%) have significant excess whiteness with excesses over 15.00 percentage points. (See Table)  For 12 schools, the disparity between the whiteness of the applications from the state and the whiteness of the law school is over 20 percentage points.  
bulletNo schools had Excess whiteness percentage points over 30.0.
bulletBased on percentage of whites in the law school, some schools in the Top Ten have remarkably low percentage of whites in the student body. For instance, the Golden Gate has 70.2% whiteness and  the University of California (Los Angeles)  has 71.3% whiteness.  However, when compared to the percentage of whites in LSAC State applications in their respective states, these schools still have a unusually high percentage of whiteness in the law school. Only 48.1% of the LSAC applications from California were from white applicants.
bulletThere are a number of factors that can affect why such disparities exist , i.e.  interest in law school, preparedness for law school, etc.,  however as state schools such large disparities may  also represent a failure of the law school to adequately serve the needs of the state by assuring access to legal education to all citizens of their state.
 

Descriptive Statistics (Top Ten)
bullet

The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School based on LSAC Application all have excess whiteness of 20 percentage points or more. For example, if a LSAC State Applications was 50% white, the law school would have whiteness over 70%  (20 percentage points excess whiteness)

bullet

Half The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School have excesses over 22.4 percentage points and the average is 22.8 percentage points ; the minimum is 21.10 and the maximum is 26.20.

 

States
bullet With the attack on affirmative action it is probably of no surprise that Texas with Hopwood  has two schools on the Top Ten Whitest Public Law School list and California with Proposition 209 has two schools. 
bullet However,  the disparities is striking and one wonders if the difference can all be accounted for by demise of affirmative action.

 Regions:
bulletThe regions are based on Law school admission council (LSAC) designation. They include: Northeast, New England, South Central, South East, MidSouth, Midwest, Great Lakes, Mountain West, Northwest, and Far West.
bulletMidsouth has the lowest minimum excess percentage points (-17.20); South Central has the highest (26.20); Southeast has the highest mean (19.31) and Midwest has the lowest mean (2.27); Southcentral also has the highest median (20.60) and Mountain West has the lowest median (3.56).
bullet

Five (5)  of The Top Ten Whitest Public Law School are  from the south. 

bulletOnly two public law schools have disparities in percentage points greater than 25.
bulletNone of the schools in the southeast have excess whiteness below 15.00 points; all of the schools in New England have excess whiteness points below 15.00 points;  Six regions have some schools with no excess whiteness.
bulletOf the 8 schools with no excess whiteness, 77.7%  are in the Midwest/Great Lakes/Mountain West region
bulletThe difference among region is statistically significant (p=.03). That is, there is less than  3% probability that the difference occurred by chance alone. Given that the highest medians occurred in three regions (South central, Southeast and Far west) provides some indication that attacks on affirmative action is making the legal profession more white.

Tier :  
bulletTier designation is based on the 2003-2004 US News & World Report rankings.
bullet

3 of the Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools are 1st tier schools and 4 are 2nd tier

bullet68.9% (51) of Historically White Public Law School are 1st tier or 2nd tier schools. In fact, only 9.5% (7) are 4th tier law schools.
bulletThe 1st tier has the lowest minimum excess whiteness percentage points (-5.20); the 4th tier has the highest maximum excess whiteness percentage points (26.20); the 3rd tier has the lowest mean (7.14) and the 4th tier has the highest mean (12.09); the 4th tier has the lowest median (6.90) and the 1st tier has the highest median (12.00)
bulletThe 4th tier law schools is the only tier to have schools with excess white percentage points over 25.00. 
bullet The difference among tiers is not statistically significant.

 

Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools
(LSAC State Applications)

Historically White Public Law Schools (n=74)

Descriptive Statistics for
Top Ten Public Law Schools
Based on LSAC Applications from State

 N

10

Mean

22.8400

Median

22.4000

Minimum

21.10

Maximum

26.20

Descriptive  Statistics for
Public Law Schools
Based on State LSAC Applications

N

 74

Mean

9.8568

Median

9.5500

Minimum

-17.20

Maximum

26.20

 

Excess Whiteness Grouping of
 Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Applications

Frequency

Percent

15.00 to 24.99

8

80.0

25.00 to 39.99

2

20.0

Total

10

100

Excess Whiteness Grouping of
 Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Applications

Frequency

Percent

No excess

9

12.2

.01 to 4.99

15

20.3

5.00 to 14.99

26

35.1

15.00 to 24.99

22

29.7

25.00 to 39.99

2

2.7

Tier of  Top Ten 
Whitest Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Applications

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

3

30.0

2nd Tier (USNews)

4

40.0

3rd Tier (USNews)

1

10.0

4th Tier (USNews)

2

20.0

Tier of  Whitest Public Law Schools Based on 
State LSAC Applications

Frequency

Percent

1st Tier (USNews)

25

33.8

2nd Tier (USNews)

26

35.1

3rd Tier (USNews)

14

18.9

4th Tier (USNews)

7

9.5

No US News Ranking

2

2.7

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

1st Tier (USNews)

-5.20

23.20

10.6760

12.0000

25

2nd Tier (USNews)

-3.60

22.20

10.8308

10.5000

26

3rd Tier (USNews)

-2.70

22.60

7.1357

6.9000

14

4th Tier (USNews)

-2.30

26.20

12.0857

9.1000

7

No US News Ranking

-17.20

13.60

-1.8000

-1.8000

2

Total

-17.20

26.20

9.8568

9.5500

7

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

451.640

4

112.910

1.499

.212

Excess Whiteness by Tier
Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations
(Percentage in rows read across)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

16.0%

24.0%

12.0%

48.0%

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

3.8%

23.1%

38.5%

34.6%

 

3rd Tier (USNews)

14.3%

21.4%

57.1%

7.1%

 

4th Tier (USNews)

14.3%

57.1%

28.6%

No US News Ranking

50.0%

 

50.0%

 

 

 

12.2%

20.3%

35.1%

29.7%

2.7%

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.093

.129

-.793

.431

Excess Whiteness by Tier
Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations
(Percentage in columns read down)

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

1st Tier (USNews)

44.4%

40.0%

11.5%

54.5%

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

11.1%

40.0%

38.5%

40.9%

3rd Tier (US Nres)

22.2%

20.0%

30.8%

4.5%

 

4th Tier (US News)

11.1%

 

15.4%

 

100.0%

No US News Ranking

11.1%

 

3.8%

 

Symmetric Measures

 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.137

.114

-1.173

.245

Region of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Applications

 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

1

10.0

Southcentral

2

20.0

Southeast

3

30.0

Midsouth

2

20.0

Great Lakes

1

10.0

Far West

1

10.0

Total

10

100.0

Regions where
 Whitest Public Law Schools are Located

 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

7

9.5

New England

2

2.7

Southcentral

7

9.5

Southeast

7

9.5

Midsouth

13

17.6

Midwest

8

10.8

Great Lakes

14

18.9

Mountain West

8

10.8

Northwest

2

2.7

Far West

6

8.1

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

N

Northeast

-2.30

21.10

9.0000

10.8000

7

New England

7.50

12.00

9.7500

9.7500

2

Southcentral

.90

26.20

15.8429

19.6000

7

Southeast

15.80

22.20

19.3143

20.6000

7

Midsouth

-17.20

25.50

10.9385

12.5000

13

Midwest

-3.90

10.70

2.2750

.8500

8

Great Lakes

-5.20

22.60

7.0571

6.7000

14

Mountain West

-3.60

10.30

3.7625

3.7000

8

Northwest

4.20

9.40

6.8000

6.8000

2

Far West

7.30

23.20

16.3167

17.3500

6

Total

-17.20

26.20

9.8568

9.5500

74

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

2033.104

9

225.900

3.999

.000

Excess Whiteness by Region
Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations
(Percentage in rows read across)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Total %

Northeast

14.3%

28.6%

28.6%

28.6%

 

100%

New England

 

 

100.0%

  

 

100%

Southcentral

 

14.3%

14.3%

57.1%

14.3%

100%

Southeast

 

 

 

100.0%

 

100%

Midsouth

7.7%

7.7%

46.2%

30.8%

7.7%

100%

Midwest

37.5%

37.5%

25.0%

 

 

100%

Great Lakes

14.3%

28.6%

50.0%

7.1%

  

100%

Mountain West

25.0%

37.5%

37.5%

  

  

100%

Northwest

  

50.0%

50.0%

  

  

100%

Far West

  

  

33.3%

66.7%

 

100%

 Total

12.2%

20.3%

35.1%

29.7%

2.7%

100%
Symmetric Measures

 

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Spearman Correlation

-.253

.116

-2.219

.030

Excess Whiteness by Region
Public Law Schools Based on State LSAC Populations
(Percentage in columns read down)

 

No excess

.01 to 4.99

5.00 to 14.99

15.00 to 24.99

25.00 to 39.99

Northeast

11.1%

13.3%

7.7%

9.1%

 

New England

   

 

7.7%

 

 

Southcentral

 

6.7%

3.8%

18.2%

50.0%

Southeast

  

 

 

31.8%

  

Midsouth

11.1%

6.7%

23.1%

18.2%

50.0%

Midwest

33.3%

20.0%

7.7%

  

  

Great Lakes

22.2%

26.7%

26.9%

4.5%

 

Mountain West

22.2%

20.0%

11.5%

  

  

Northwest

  

6.7%

3.8%

 

  

Far West

  

 

 

18.2%

 

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

-.253

.116

-2.219

.030

State of  Top Ten Whitest Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Applications

Frequency

Percent

CA

1

10.0

GA

2

20.0

IL

1

10.0

MD

2

20.0

MS

1

10.0

NY

1

10.0

TX

2

20.0

Total

10

100.0

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools 
Based on State LSAC Populations (Ranking)

Rank School State %Whiteness in Law School %Whiteness in State LSAC Applications Excess Whiteness
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 59.5 26.2
2 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 53.8 25.5
3 University of Maryland  MD 77 53.8 23.2
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 48.1 23.2
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 68.6 22.6
6 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 62.3 22.2
7 Golden Gate University CA 70.2 48.1 22.1
8 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 62.3 21.9
9 University of Houston  TX 80.9 59.5 21.4
10 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 61.8 21.1
10 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 69.3 21.1
12 Florida State University  FL 77.7 57.1 20.6
13 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 59.5 19.6
14 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 48.1 19.1
15 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 62.5 19
16 George Mason University VA 85.3 67.2 18.1
17 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 48.1 17.6
18 University of South Carolina  SC 93 75.7 17.3
19 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 48.1 17.1
20 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 69.9 16.7
21 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 57.1 16.3
22 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 67.2 16.2
23 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 67.2 15.9
24 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 75.3 15.8
25 Wayne State University MI 83.7 69.4 14.3
26 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 66.6 13.6
27 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 78.9 13.4
28 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 73.2 13.3
29 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 73.2 12.5
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 73.1 12
31 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 68.5 11.8
32 University of Akron OH 90.4 78.9 11.5
33 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 78.6 11.3
34 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 78.9 10.7
35 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 54.9 10.3
36 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 78.9 9.7
37 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 77 9.4
38 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 84.5 9.2
39 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 78.9 9.1
40 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 68.6 8.8
41 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 69.4 8.4
42 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 85.3 7.6
43 University of Maine  ME 95.3 87.8 7.5
44 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 85.3 7.4
45 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 21.9 7.3
46 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 81 6.3
47 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 85.3 6.1
48 University of Montana  MT 95.6 90.4 5.2
49 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 78.4 5
50 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 68.6 4.5
51 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 87.2 4.4
51 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 85.2 4.4
53 University of Washington  WA 75.4 71.2 4.2
54 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 78.4 3.6
55 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 78.8 3
56 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 78.6 2.8
57 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 78.9 2.7
58 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 78.9 2.1
59 West Virginia University  WV 91 89.2 1.8
60 University of Chicago IL 70.2 68.6 1.6
60 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 90.1 1.6
62 Washburn University KS 85.8 84.7 1.1
63 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 81 0.9
64 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 84.7 0.6
65 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 62.5 0.3
66 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 72.9 0
67 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 90.1 -1.7
68 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 83.2 -2
69 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 61.8 -2.3
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 89.9 -2.7
71 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 72.9 -3.6
72 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 87.2 -3.9
73 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 80.8 -5.2
74 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 55.7 -17.2

Excess Whiteness in Public Law Schools (N=74)
Based on State LSAC Populations (Alphabetical Listing)

Rank School State %Whiteness in Law School %Whiteness in LSAC Applications Excess Whiteness
71 Arizona State University  AZ 69.3 72.9 -3.6
39 Cleveland State University (Marshall) OH 88 78.9 9.1
69 CUNY-Queens College  NY 59.5 61.8 -2.3
12 Florida State University  FL 77.7 57.1 20.6
16 George Mason University VA 85.3 67.2 18.1
6 Georgia State University  GA 84.5 62.3 22.2
7 Golden Gate University CA 70.2 48.1 22.1
54 Indiana University–Bloomington  IN 82 78.4 3.6
49 Indiana University–Indianapolis  IN 83.4 78.4 5
40 Northern Illinois University  IL 77.4 68.6 8.8
42 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) KY 92.9 85.3 7.6
58 Ohio State University (Moritz) OH 81 78.9 2.1
15 Rutgers State University–Camden NJ 81.5 62.5 19
65 Rutgers State University–Newark NJ 62.8 62.5 0.3
5 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  IL 91.2 68.6 22.6
56 Temple University (Beasley)  PA 81.4 78.6 2.8
1 Texas Tech University  TX 85.7 59.5 26.2
10 University at Buffalo NY 82.9 61.8 21.1
32 University of Akron OH 90.4 78.9 11.5
24 University of Alabama  AL 91.1 75.3 15.8
66 University of Arizona (Rogers)  AZ 72.9 72.9 0
63 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   AR 81.9 81 0.9
46 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) AR 87.3 81 6.3
2 University of Baltimore  MD 79.3 53.8 25.5
19 University of California (Berkeley)   CA 65.2 48.1 17.1
17 University of California (Davis)   CA 65.7 48.1 17.6
14 University of California (Hastings)   CA 67.2 48.1 19.1
4 University of California (Los Angeles)   CA 71.3 48.1 23.2
60 University of Chicago IL 70.2 68.6 1.6
57 University of Cincinnati  OH 81.6 78.9 2.7
55 University of Colorado (Boulder)   CO 81.8 78.8 3
30 University of Connecticut  CT 85.1 73.1 12
74 University of District of Columbia DC 38.5 55.7 -17.2
21 University of Florida (Levin)  FL 73.4 57.1 16.3
8 University of Georgia  GA 84.2 62.3 21.9
45 University of Hawaii  HI 29.2 21.9 7.3
9 University of Houston  TX 80.9 59.5 21.4
38 University of Idaho  ID 93.7 84.5 9.2
50 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  IL 73.1 68.6 4.5
72 University of Iowa  IA 83.3 87.2 -3.9
64 University of Kansas  KS 85.3 84.7 0.6
44 University of Kentucky  KY 92.7 85.3 7.4
47 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   KY 91.4 85.3 6.1
43 University of Maine  ME 95.3 87.8 7.5
3 University of Maryland  MD 77 53.8 23.2
28 University of Memphis  TN 86.5 73.2 13.3
41 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   MI 77.8 69.4 8.4
68 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   MN 81.2 83.2 -2
10 University of Mississippi  MS 90.4 69.3 21.1
34 University of Missouri (Columbia)   MO 89.6 78.9 10.7
36 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   MO 88.6 78.9 9.7
48 University of Montana  MT 95.6 90.4 5.2
51 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   NE 91.6 87.2 4.4
26 University of Nevada  NV 80.2 66.6 13.6
35 University of New Mexico  NM 65.2 54.9 10.3
31 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   NC 80.3 68.5 11.8
70 University of North Dakota  ND 87.2 89.9 -2.7
20 University of Oklahoma  OK 86.6 69.9 16.7
37 University of Oregon  OR 86.4 77 9.4
33 University of Pittsburgh  PA 89.9 78.6 11.3
18 University of South Carolina  SC 93 75.7 17.3
67 University of South Dakota  SD 88.4 90.1 -1.7
29 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   TN 85.7 73.2 12.5
13 University of Texas (Austin)  TX 79.1 59.5 19.6
27 University of Toledo  OH 92.3 78.9 13.4
51 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   UT 89.6 85.2 4.4
22 University of Virginia  VA 83.4 67.2 16.2
53 University of Washington  WA 75.4 71.2 4.2
73 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   WI 75.6 80.8 -5.2
60 University of Wyoming  WY 91.7 90.1 1.6
62 Washburn University KS 85.8 84.7 1.1
25 Wayne State University MI 83.7 69.4 14.3
59 West Virginia University  WV 91 89.2 1.8
23 William and Mary Law School  VA 83.1 67.2 15.9

 Percent of Whiteness 
in LSAC Applications (2002)
(Alphabetical Listing)

Rank State Total  White  %Whiteness
26 ALABAMA 892 672 75.3
28 ALASKA 120 89 74.2
31 ARIZONA 1384 1009 72.9
17 ARKANSAS 643 521 81.0
51 CALIFORNIA 11925 5733 48.1
50 CANADIAN PROVINCES 737 388 52.6
21 COLORADO 1510 1190 78.8
30 CONNECTICUT 1461 1068 73.1
41 DELAWARE 283 187 66.1
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 969 540 55.7
46 FLORIDA 5170 2953 57.1
43 GEORGIA 2788 1738 62.3
54 GUAM 19 3 15.8
53 HAWAII 329 72 21.9
14 IDAHO 284 240 84.5
36 ILLINOIS 4571 3137 68.6
23 INDIANA 1706 1337 78.4
8 IOWA 794 692 87.2
13 KANSAS 756 640 84.7
11 KENTUCKY 1065 908 85.3
40 LOUISIANA 1610 1070 66.5
6 MAINE 295 259 87.8
49 MARYLAND 2440 1313 53.8
27 MASSACHUSETTS 2949 2200 74.6
34 MICHIGAN 2844 1973 69.4
15 MINNESOTA 1435 1194 83.2
35 MISSISSIPPI 701 486 69.3
19 MISSOURI 1566 1236 78.9
1 MONTANA 250 226 90.4
7 NEBRASKA 485 423 87.2
39 NEVADA 548 365 66.6
9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 297 254 85.5
42 NEW JERSEY 3758 2348 62.5
48 NEW MEXICO 375 206 54.9
44 NEW YORK 9329 5761 61.8
37 NORTH CAROLINA 2350 1609 68.5
4 NORTH DAKOTA 169 152 89.9
19 OHIO 3539 2792 78.9
33 OKLAHOMA 847 592 69.9
24 OREGON 839 646 77.0
52 OTHER TERRITORIES 30 7 23.3
22 PENNSYLVANIA 3789 2977 78.6
57 PUERTO RICO 1287 17 1.3
16 RHODE ISLAND 292 242 82.9
25 SOUTH CAROLINA 1051 796 75.7
2 SOUTH DAKOTA 182 164 90.1
56 STATE NOT INDICATED 1899 93 4.9
29 TENNESSEE 1369 1002 73.2
45 TEXAS 6797 4043 59.5
12 UTAH 1131 964 85.2
10 VERMONT 144 123 85.4
55 VIRGIN ISLANDS 17 2 11.8
38 VIRGINIA 3387 2276 67.2
32 WASHINGTON 1936 1379 71.2
5 WEST VIRGINIA 453 404 89.2
18 WISCONSIN 1556 1258 80.
2 WYOMING 152 137 90.1

 Percent of Whiteness 
in LSAC Applications (2002)
(Ranking)

Rank State Total  White  %Whiteness
1 MONTANA 250 226 90.4
2 SOUTH DAKOTA 182 164 90.1
2 WYOMING 152 137 90.1
4 NORTH DAKOTA 169 152 89.9
5 WEST VIRGINIA 453 404 89.2
6 MAINE 295 259 87.8
7 NEBRASKA 485 423 87.2
8 IOWA 794 692 87.2
9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 297 254 85.5
10 VERMONT 144 123 85.4
11 KENTUCKY 1065 908 85.3
12 UTAH 1131 964 85.2
13 KANSAS 756 640 84.7
14 IDAHO 284 240 84.5
15 MINNESOTA 1435 1194 83.2
16 RHODE ISLAND 292 242 82.9
17 ARKANSAS 643 521 81.0
18 WISCONSIN 1556 1258 80.8
19 MISSOURI 1566 1236 78.9
19 OHIO 3539 2792 78.9
21 COLORADO 1510 1190 78.8
22 PENNSYLVANIA 3789 2977 78.6
23 INDIANA 1706 1337 78.4
24 OREGON 839 646 77.0
25 SOUTH CAROLINA 1051 796 75.7
26 ALABAMA 892 672 75.3
27 MASSACHUSETTS 2949 2200 74.6
28 ALASKA 120 89 74.2
29 TENNESSEE 1369 1002 73.2
30 CONNECTICUT 1461 1068 73.1
31 ARIZONA 1384 1009 72.9
32 WASHINGTON 1936 1379 71.2
33 OKLAHOMA 847 592 69.9
34 MICHIGAN 2844 1973 69.4
35 MISSISSIPPI 701 486 69.3
36 ILLINOIS 4571 3137 68.6
37 NORTH CAROLINA 2350 1609 68.5
38 VIRGINIA 3387 2276 67.2
39 NEVADA 548 365 66.6
40 LOUISIANA 1610 1070 66.5
41 DELAWARE 283 187 66.1
42 NEW JERSEY 3758 2348 62.5
43 GEORGIA 2788 1738 62.3
44 NEW YORK 9329 5761 61.8
45 TEXAS 6797 4043 59.5
46 FLORIDA 5170 2953 57.1
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 969 540 55.7
48 NEW MEXICO 375 206 54.9
49 MARYLAND 2440 1313 53.8
50 CANADIAN PROVINCES 737 388 52.6
51 CALIFORNIA 11925 5733 48.1
52 OTHER TERRITORIES 30 7 23.3
53 HAWAII 329 72 21.9
54 GUAM 19 3 15.8
55 VIRGIN ISLANDS 17 2 11.8
56 STATE NOT INDICATED 1899 93 4.9
57 PUERTO RICO 1287 17 1.3

 

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Vernellia R. Randall
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Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).