Race, Racism and the Law
"Speaking Truth to Power"

Whitest Regional Law Schools

The 2004 Whitest Law Schools Report
The Top Ten Whitest Law Schools in the United States
Prologue:
I grew up in Texas during Jim Crow.  During that time going on long distance road trips had a distinct flavor for Blacks and I remember it vividly - the packing enough food for the entire trip (no restaurants), the using the bathroom on the side of the road (no gas station bathrooms), the sleeping in the car on the side of the road (no motels). But my most vivid memory of my road trips in Texas was the sign I read every time we went through Greenville, Texas -
The Blackest Land,
The Whitest People
In many ways institutional discrimination in law schools is really about  maintaining the legal profession as "The Whitest Profession". 

Professor Vernellia Randall

Note: Whiteness is defined as caucasian plus unknown.

 

Ranking (Historically White Law Schools)
Number of Schools per Region
Descriptive Statistics (Excess Whiteness)
Excess Whiteness (Grouping)
Excess Whiteness by Tier
Excess Whiteness by Status
States by Region Listing
Whitest Regional - Alphabetical
Far West - The Whitest Law Schools

Rank

School 
(Alphabetical Listing)

Excess Whiteness  State Region
1 Samford University (Cumberland) 38.73 AL Southeast
2 University of South Carolina  37.03 SC Southeast
3 University of Alabama  35.13 AL Southeast
4 University of Mississippi  34.43 MS Southeast
5 Mississippi College  34.33 MS Southeast
6 Pepperdine University 34.11 CA Far West
6 University of Nevada  32.11 NV Far West
8 Thomas Jefferson School of Law 31.31 CA Far West
9 Mercer University 30.73 GA Southeast
10 University of the Pacific (McGeorge)  30.11 CA Far West
11 Georgia State University  28.53 GA Southeast
12 University of Georgia  28.23 GA Southeast
13 Duquesne University 27.71 PA Northeast
14 California Western School of Law  27.61 CA Far West
15 Stetson University 26.73 FL Southeast
16 Northern Kentucky University (Chase) 26 KY Midsouth
17 University of Kentucky  25.8 KY Midsouth
18 University of Richmond  25.5 VA Midsouth
19 Campbell University 25.4 NC Midsouth
20 Chapman University 25.31 CA Far West
21 Florida Coastal School of Law  24.83 FL Southeast
22 University of San Diego  24.71 CA Far West
23 Widener University 24.7 DE Midsouth
24 Emory University 24.53 GA Southeast
25 University of Louisville (Brandeis)   24.5 KY Midsouth
26 Baylor University 24.49 TX South Central
26 Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law 24.49 TX South Central
28 University of Arkansas (Little Rock)  (Bowen) 24.39 AR South Central
29 University of Pittsburgh  24.21 PA Northeast
30 West Virginia University  24.1 WV Midsouth
31 Penn State University (Dickinson School of Law) 23.71 PA Northeast
32 University of Oklahoma  23.69 OK South Central
33 Louisiana State University–Baton Rouge  23.39 LA South Central
34 University of California (Los Angeles)   23.21 CA Far West
35 Wake Forest University 22.8 NC Midsouth
36 Texas Tech University  22.79 TX South Central
37 University of San Francisco  22.51 CA Far West
38 Villanova University 22.21 PA Northeast
39 Appalachian School of Law 22.2 VA Midsouth
40 Golden Gate University 22.11 CA Far West
41 Barry University 21.83 FL Southeast
42 Florida State University  21.73 FL Southeast
43 University of Memphis  19.6 TN Midsouth
44 University of California (Hastings)   19.11 CA Far West
45 University of Maine  19.06 ME New England
46 University of Arkansas (Fayetteville )   18.99 AR South Central
47 University of Tennessee (Knoxville)   18.8 TN Midsouth
48 Stanford University 18.51 CA Far West
49 George Mason University 18.4 VA Midsouth
50 University of Tulsa  18.39 OK South Central
51 University of Houston  17.99 TX South Central
52 Marquette University 17.9 WI Great Lakes
53 University of California (Davis)   17.61 CA Far West
54 University of Toledo  17.6 OH Great Lakes
55 University of Montana  17.5 MT Mountain West
56 University of Florida (Levin)  17.43 FL Southeast
57 University at Buffalo 17.21 NY Northeast
58 University of California (Berkeley)   17.11 CA Far West
59 Oklahoma City University  16.89 OK South Central
60 Ohio Northern University  16.8 OH Great Lakes
61 Pace University 16.71 NY Northeast
62 Albany Law School-Union University 16.51 NY Northeast
63 Southern Illinois University-Carbondale  16.5 IL Great Lakes
63 University of Virginia  16.5 VA Midsouth
65 Loyola University-New Orleans  16.49 LA South Central
66 Willamette University 16.28 OR Northwest
67 William and Mary Law School  16.2 VA Midsouth
68 University of Texas (Austin)  16.19 TX South Central
69 Rutgers State University–Camden 15.81 NJ Northeast
70 Temple University (Beasley)  15.71 PA Northeast
71 University of Akron 15.7 OH Great Lakes
72 Texas Wesleyan University  15.69 TX South Central
73 University of Idaho  15.6 ID Mountain West
74 Tulane University 15.19 LA South Central
75 Washington and Lee University  15.1 VA Midsouth
76 Regent University 14.9 VA Midsouth
77 Southwestern University School of Law 14.61 CA Far West
78 Suffolk University 13.96 MA New England
79 Valparaiso University 13.9 IN Great Lakes
80 Quinnipiac University 13.86 CT New England
81 University of Wyoming  13.6 WY Mountain West
82 Capital University 13.4 OH Great Lakes
82 University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill   13.4 NC Midsouth
84 University of Oregon  13.38 OR Northwest
85 Cardozo-Yeshiva University  13.31 NY Northeast
86 Cleveland State University (Marshall) 13.3 OH Great Lakes
87 New York Law School  13.11 NY Northeast
88 Ave Maria School of Law 13.1 MI Great Lakes
89 William Mitchell College of Law  13 MN Great Lakes
90 Santa Clara University 12.81 CA Far West
91 South Texas College of Law  12.79 TX South Central
92 Loyola Law School 12.71 CA Far West
93 Seton Hall University 12.51 NJ Northeast
94 University of Baltimore  12.4 MD Midsouth
95 Gonzaga University 12.38 WA Northwest
96 Roger Williams University 12.16 RI New England
97 Chicago-Kent Illinois Institute of Technology  12 IL Great Lakes
98 Hamline University 11.9 MN Great Lakes
99 Brooklyn Law School 11.81 NY Northeast
99 St. John's University 11.81 NY Northeast
101 University of Utah (S.J. Quinney)   11.5 UT Mountain West
102 Syracuse University 11.41 NY Northeast
103 University of Miami  11.13 FL Southeast
104 Vermont Law School  10.46 VT New England
104 Western New England College  10.46 MA New England
106 University of Dayton  10.4 OH Great Lakes
107 Brigham Young University (J. Reuben Clark) 10.1 UT Mountain West
107 Catholic University of America  10.1 DC Midsouth
107 University of Maryland  10.1 MD Midsouth
110 Whittier Law School 9.81 CA Far West
111 Case Western Reserve University 9.5 OH Great Lakes
112 New York University  9.41 NY Northeast
113 Fordham University 9.21 NY Northeast
113 Hofstra University 9.21 NY Northeast
113 University of Southern California 9.21 CA Far West
116 Duke University 9 NC Midsouth
116 Wayne State University 9 MI Great Lakes
118 University of Connecticut  8.86 CT New England
119 Indiana University–Indianapolis  8.7 IN Great Lakes
120 Western State University 8.61 CA Far West
121 Touro College (Jacob D. Fuchsberg) 8.41 NY Northeast
122 Nova Southeastern University 8.23 FL Southeast
123 University of Nebraska–Lincoln   7.92 NE Midwest
124 Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law  7.5 MI Great Lakes
125 Indiana University–Bloomington  7.3 IN Great Lakes
126 John Marshall Law School 7.3 IL Great Lakes
127 Lewis and Clark College (Northwestern) 7.28 OR Northwest
128 Vanderbilt University 7.1 TN Midsouth
129 Drake University 6.92 IA Midwest
130 Cornell University 6.91 NY Northeast
131 Loyola University Chicago  6.9 IL Great Lakes
132 University of Cincinnati  6.9 OH Great Lakes
133 New England School of Law  6.56 MA New England
134 University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)   6.5 MN Great Lakes
135 Ohio State University (Moritz) 6.3 OH Great Lakes
136 Franklin Pierce Law Center  6.06 NH New England
137 Georgetown University 6 DC Midsouth
138 University of Missouri (Columbia)   5.92 MO Midwest
139 University of Pennsylvania  5.31 PA Northeast
140 Notre Dame Law School  5.3 IN Great Lakes
141 Saint Louis University  4.92 MO Midwest
141 University of Missouri (Kansas City)   4.92 MO Midwest
143 Creighton University 4.82 NE Midwest
144 University of South Dakota  4.72 SD Midwest
145 Seattle University  4.58 WA Northwest
146 American University (Washington College of Law)  4.4 DC Midsouth
147 University of Colorado (Boulder)   3.7 CO Mountain West
147 University of Denver  3.7 CO Mountain West
149 University of North Dakota  3.52 ND Midwest
150 University of Michigan (Ann Arbor)   3.1 MI Great Lakes
151 Northern Illinois University  2.7 IL Great Lakes
152 University of Washington  2.38 WA Northwest
153 Washburn University 2.12 KS Midwest
154 University of Kansas  1.62 KS Midwest
155 DePaul University 1.4 IL Great Lakes
156 George Washington University  1.2 DC Midsouth
157 University of Wisconsin (Madison)   0.9 WI Great Lakes
158 University of Detroit Mercy  0.4 MI Great Lakes
159 St. Mary's University -0.01 TX South Central
160 Boston College  -0.04 MA New England
161 University of Iowa  -0.38 IA Midwest
162 Northeastern University -0.94 MA New England
163 University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign)  -1.6 IL Great Lakes
164 Boston University  -2.34 MA New England
165 Harvard University -2.64 MA New England
166 Rutgers State University–Newark -2.89 NJ Northeast
167 St. Thomas University -3.77 FL Southeast
168 University of Chicago -4.5 IL Great Lakes
169 Washington University in St. Louis -4.68 MO Midwest
170 University of Arizona (Rogers)  -5.2 AZ Mountain West
171 Columbia University -5.69 NY Northeast
172 CUNY-Queens College  -6.19 NY Northeast
173 Northwestern University -6.4 IL Great Lakes
174 Arizona State University  -8.8 AZ Mountain West
175 Yale University -9.34 CT New England
176 Thomas M. Cooley Law School  -12.4 MI Great Lakes
177 University of New Mexico  -12.9 NM Mountain West
178 North Carolina Central University -16.2 NC Midsouth
179 University of District of Columbia -17.47 PR Southeast
180 University of Hawaii  -18.89 HI Far West
181 Southern University -27.41 LA South Central
182 Texas Southern University (Thurgood Marshall)1 -44.51 TX South Central
183 Inter-American University School of Law -55.97 PR Southeast
184 Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
185 University of Puerto Rico -55.97 PR Southeast
186 Howard University -61.1 DC Midsouth

Number of Schools per LSAC Region
(All Schools n=186)

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

24

12.9

New England

14

7.5

Southcentral

18

9.7

Southeast

20

10.8

Midsouth

28

15.1

Midwest

12

6.5

Great Lakes

33

17.7

Mountain West

10

5.4

Northwest

6

3.2

Far West

21

11.3

Number of Historically White Law Schools
 per LSAC Region (n= 179)

 

Frequency

Percent

Northeast

24

13.4

New England

14

7.8

SouthCentral

16

8.9

Southeast

17

9.5

Midsouth

26

14.5

Midwest

12

6.7

Great Lakes

33

18.4

Mountain West

10

5.6

Northwest

6

3.4

Far West

21

11.

   
Excess Whiteness 
(Regional LSAC Applications)

Region

Minimum

Maximum

Median

Mean

N

Northeast

-6.19

27.71

12.1600

11.9767

24

New England

-9.34

19.06

7.7100

6.1529

14

Southcentral

-.01

24.49

18.1900

17.6406

16

Southeast

-3.77

38.73

26.7300

24.7006

17

Midsouth

-17.47

26.00

16.3500

15.2588

26

Midwest

-4.68

7.92

4.7700

3.5283

12

Great Lakes

-12.40

17.90

8.7000

7.8512

33

Mountain West

-12.90

17.50

6.9000

4.8800

10

Northwest

2.38

16.28

9.8300

9.3800

6

Far West

-18.89

34.11

19.1100

18.7767

21

Total

-18.89

38.73

12.8100

12.6999

179

ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

6860.095

9

762.233

9.533

.000

  

Excess Whiteness
Regional LSAC Application
(Read Across)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

12.5%

50.0%

33.3%

4.2%

New England

35.7%

57.1%

7.1%

Southcentral

6.3%

12.5%

81.3%

Southeast

5.9%

11.8%

29.4%

52.9%

Midsouth

3.8%

7.7%

30.8%

42.3%

15.4%

Midwest

16.7%

58.3%

25.0%

Great Lakes

12.1%

15.2%

54.5%

18.2%

Mountain West

30.0%

20.0%

30.0%

20.0%

Northwest

33.3%

50.0%

16.7%

Far West

4.8%

28.6%

38.1%

28.6%

   

Excess Whiteness
Regional LSAC Application
(Read Down)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

14.3%

18.5%

14.5%

5.0%

New England

23.8%

12.3%

1.8%

Southcentral

4.8%

3.1%

23.6%

Southeast

4.8%

3.1%

9.1%

45.0%

Midsouth

4.8%

11.1%

12.3%

20.0%

20.0%

Midwest

9.5%

38.9%

4.6%

Great Lakes

19.0%

27.8%

27.7%

10.9%

Mountain West

14.3%

11.1%

4.6%

3.6%

Northwest

11.1%

4.6%

1.8%

Far West

4.8%

9.2%

14.5%

30.0%

  
Excess Whiteness
Regional LSAC Application by Private/Public School Status
(Read Across)
Private

No Excess
 Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

5.9%

70.6%

17.6%

5.9%

New England

41.7%

58.3%

Southcentral

11.1%

22.2%

66.7%

Southeast

10.0%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

Midsouth

15.4%

38.5%

30.8%

15.4%

Midwest

25.0%

50.0%

25.0%

Great Lakes

15.8%

10.5%

57.9%

15.8%

Mountain West

50.0%

50.0%

Northwest

25.0%

50.0%

25.0%

Far West

40.0%

26.7%

33.3%

11.4%

7.6%

46.7%

22.9%

11.4%

 
Public

No Excess
 Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

28.6%

71.4%

New England

50.0%

50.0%

Southcentral

100.0%

Southeast

28.6%

71.4%

Midsouth

7.7%

23.1%

53.8%

15.4%

Midwest

12.5%

62.5%

25.0%

Great Lakes

7.1%

21.4%

50.0%

21.4%

Mountain West

37.5%

12.5%

25.0%

25.0%

Northwest

50.0%

50.0%

Far West

16.7%

66.7%

16.7%

Excess Whiteness
Regional LSAC Application 
by Private/Public School Status
(Read Down)

Private

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

   

Northeast

22.2%

16.1%

New England

6.3%

3.2%

Southcentral

22.6%

Southeast

6.5%

62.5%

Midsouth

11.1%

18.8%

22.6%

25.0%

Midwest

11.1%

50.0%

12.5%

Great Lakes

11.1%

30.0%

43.8%

9.7%

Mountain West

33.3%

10.0%

12.5%

6.5%

Northwest

10.0%

6.3%

Far West

11.1%

12.9%

12.5%

 

Public

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

     

Northeast

8.3%

24.5%

12.5%

8.3%

New England

41.7%

14.3%

Southcentral

8.3%

4.1%

25.0%

Southeast

8.3%

4.1%

12.5%

33.3%

Midsouth

25.0%

10.2%

16.7%

16.7%

Midwest

8.3%

25.0%

2.0%

Great Lakes

25.0%

25.0%

22.4%

12.5%

Mountain West

12.5%

2.0%

Northwest

12.5%

4.1%

4.2%

Far West

12.2%

16.7%

41.7%

Spearman Correlation Coefficient

Status

Value

Asymp. Std. Error

Approx. T

Approx. Sig.

Private

.113

.092

1.158

.250

Public

-.341

.113

-3.083

.003

 

Excess Whiteness
Regional LSAC Application by Tier
(Read Down)


1st Tier (US News)

No Excess 
Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

23.5%

New England

36.4%

5.9%

Southcentral

20.0%

Southeast

13.3%

100.0%

Midsouth

20.0%

29.4%

33.3%

Midwest

18.2%

Great Lakes

27.3%

40.0%

23.5%

Mountain West

9.1%

20.0%

11.8%

Northwest

20.0%

Far West

5.9%

33.3%

1st Tier (US News)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

20.0%

80.0%

New England

80.0%

20.0%

Southcentral

100.0%

Southeast

50.0%

50.0%

Midsouth

9.1%

45.5%

45.5%

Midwest

100.0%

Great Lakes

33.3%

22.2%

44.4%

Mountain West

25.0%

25.0%

50.0%

Northwest

100.0%

Far West

16.7%

83.3%

 

2nd Tier (USNews)

No Excess 
Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

20.0%

27.8%

29.4%

New England

20.0%

Southcentral

29.4%

Southeast

5.6%

5.9%

66.7%

Midsouth

25.0%

5.6%

11.8%

33.3%

Midwest

25.0%

11.1%

Great Lakes

27.8%

11.8%

Mountain West

40.0%

25.0%

Northwest

25.0%

11.1%

Far West

20.0%

11.1%

11.8%

2nd Tier (US News)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

9.1%

45.5%

45.5%

New England

100.0%

Southcentral

100.0%

Southeast

16.7%

16.7%

66.7%

Midsouth

16.7%

16.7%

33.3%

33.3%

Midwest

33.3%

66.7%

Great Lakes

71.4%

28.6%

Mountain West

66.7%

33.3%

Northwest

33.3%

66.7%

Far West

20.0%

40.0%

40.0%

 

3rd Tier (US News)

No Excess 
Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

     

Northeast

18.2%

25.0%

14.3%

New England

27.3%

8.3%

Southcentral

9.1%

8.3%

Southeast

28.6%

Midsouth

16.7%

14.3%

Midwest

83.3%

9.1%

Great Lakes

16.7%

18.2%

25.0%

Mountain West

9.1%

16.7%

Far West

9.1%

42.9%

3rd Tier (US News)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

33.3%

50.0%

16.7%

New England

75.0%

25.0%

Southcentral

50.0%

50.0%

Southeast

100.0%

Midsouth

25.0%

50.0%

25.0%

Midwest

83.3%

16.7%

Great Lakes

16.7%

33.3%

50.0%

Mountain West

33.3%

66.7%

Far West

25.0%

75.0%

 

4th Tier (US News)

No Excess 
Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

25.0%

5.9%

New England

23.5%

Southcentral

25.0%

5.9%

44.4%

Southeast

25.0%

5.9%

11.1%

25.0%

Midsouth

11.8%

11.1%

25.0%

Midwest

33.3%

Great Lakes

25.0%

66.7%

35.3%

11.1%

Northwest

5.9%

11.1%

Far West

5.9%

11.1%

50.0%

4th Tier (US News)

No Excess Whiteness

.01 through 4.99

5.00 through 14.99

15.00 through 24.99

25.00 through 39.99

Northeast

50.0%

50.0%

New England

100.0%

Southcentral

37.5%

12.5%

50.0%

Southeast

25.0%

25.0%

25.0%

25.0%

Midsouth

20.0%

40.0%

20.0%

20.0%

Midwest

100.0%

Great Lakes

10.0%

20.0%

60.0%

10.0%

Northwest

50.0%

50.0%

Far West

25.0%

25.0%

50.0%

 

 

LSAC Applications by Region

Rank Region Total White  %Whiteness
in Region
1 Midwest 3952 3307 83.68
2 Mountain West 5086 3972 78.10
3 New England 5438 4146 76.24
4 Great Lakes 15651 11691 74.70
5 Northwest 2895 2114 73.02
6 MidSouth 12316 8239 66.90
7 Northeast 16876 11086 65.69
9 Southcentral 9897 6226 62.91
10 Southeast 11906 6664 55.97
11 Far West 12851 6180 48.09
Rank Region Total White %Whiteness in Region
11 Far West 12851 6180 48.09
4 Great Lakes 15651 11691 74.70
6 Midsouth 12316 8239 66.90
1 Midwest 3952 3307 83.68
2 Mountain West 5086 3972 78.10
3 New England 5438 4146 76.24
7 Northeast 16876 11086 65.69
5 Northwest 2895 2114 73.02
9 Southcentral 9897 6226 62.91
10 Southeast 11906 6664 55.97

State Region
ALABAMA Southeast
ALASKA Northwest
ARIZONA Mountain West
ARKANSAS SouthCentral
CALIFORNIA Far West
COLORADO Mountain West
CONNECTICUT New England
DELAWARE MidSouth
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA MidSouth
FLORIDA Southeast
GEORGIA Southeast
GUAM Far West
HAWAII Far West
IDAHO Mountain West
ILLINOIS Great Lakes
INDIANA Great Lakes
IOWA Midwest
KANSAS Midwest
KENTUCKY MidSouth
LOUISIANA SouthCentral
MAINE New England
MARYLAND MidSouth
MASSACHUSETTS New England
MICHIGAN Great Lakes
MINNESOTA Great Lakes
MISSISSIPPI Southeast
MISSOURI Midwest
MONTANA Mountain West
NEBRASKA Midwest
NEVADA Far West
NEW HAMPSHIRE New England
NEW JERSEY Northeast
NEW MEXICO Mountain West
NEW YORK Northeast
NORTH CAROLINA MidSouth
NORTH DAKOTA Midwest
OHIO Great Lakes
OKLAHOMA SouthCentral
OREGON Northwest
OTHER TERRITORIES Far West
PENNSYLVANIA Northeast
PUERTO RICO Southeast
RHODE ISLAND New England
SOUTH CAROLINA Southeast
SOUTH DAKOTA Midwest
STATE NOT INDICATED  
TENNESSEE MidSouth
TEXAS SouthCentral
UTAH Mountain West
VERMONT New England
VIRGIN ISLANDS Southeast
VIRGINIA MidSouth
WASHINGTON Northwest
WEST VIRGINIA MidSouth
WISCONSIN Great Lakes
WYOMING Mountain West

 

Region

State

Far West

CALIFORNIA
GUAM
HAWAII
NEVADA
 

Great Lakes

ILLINOIS
INDIANA
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
OHIO
WISCONSIN

MidSouth

DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
KENTUCKY
MARYLAND
NORTH CAROLINA
TENNESSEE
VIRGINIA
WEST VIRGINIA

Midwest

IOWA
KANSAS
MISSOURI
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New England

CONNECTICUT
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Northeast

NEW JERSEY
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Northwest

ALASKA
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SouthCentral

ARKANSAS
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Southeast

ALABAMA
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SOUTH CAROLINA
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.

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Vernellia R. Randall
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Contact: race.mail@notes.udayton.ed

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, some material on this website is provided for comment, background information, research and/or educational purposes only, without permission from the copyright owner(s), under the "fair use" provisions of the federal copyright laws. These materials may not be distributed for other purposes without permission of the copyright owner(s).


Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).