Race, Racism and the Law
"Speaking Truth to Power"

Statistics (Total Whiteness)

The 2004 Whitest Law Schools Report
The Top Ten Whitest Law Schools in the United States
Prologue:
I grew up in Texas during Jim Crow.  During that time going on long distance road trips had a distinct flavor for Blacks and I remember it vividly - the packing enough food for the entire trip (no restaurants), the using the bathroom on the side of the road (no gas station bathrooms), the sleeping in the car on the side of the road (no motels). But my most vivid memory of my road trips in Texas was the sign I read every time we went through Greenville, Texas -
The Blackest Land,
The Whitest People
In many ways institutional discrimination in law schools is really about  maintaining the legal profession as "The Whitest Profession". 

Professor Vernellia Randall

Note: Whiteness is defined as caucasian plus unknown.

 

Basic Descriptive Statistics
bulletThis analysis is based on the percent of the total student body that is white; that is Law School Whiteness. 179 schools were included in this analysis.  Average Whiteness is 79.90 and half the law schools have Whiteness above 81.60.
bulletThe highest level of whiteness is The University of Montana with 95.6% Whiteness (percent of white students).
bulletThe lowest is the University of Hawaii with 29.2% Whiteness.  However, because the University of Hawaii serves the population of its state which is non-white, it may be more properly excluded.
bullet66 schools (36.9%)  have Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%
bullet4 schools (1.7%) have Whiteness less than or equal to 39.99%
bulletAlmost half of the schools (49.2%) have Whiteness between 70 to 84.9%.
Region. 
bulletMidwest has the greatest percentage of schools (83.3%) with Whiteness over 85%; while the Great Lakes has the largest number of schools (13) with Whiteness over 85%.
bulletThree Regions (Southeast, Midsouth, and Far West) each has 1 school with Whiteness less than 55%.
bulletThe difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by region is statistically significant (p=.01). That is there is less than a 1% probability that the distribution occurred by chance.
 

Tier

bulletThe 3rd Tier has the greatest percentage (66.7%) and the most number (24) of schools with Whiteness over 85%.
bulletOf the three schools that have Whiteness below 55%, 1 is a 2nd tier school; 1 is a 4th Tier School and 1 has No US News Ranking because it didn't report the information
bulletThe 1st tier has the fewest school (7/14%) with Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%.
bulletThe difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by tier was statistically significant (p=.000). That is there was less than .000 probability that the distribution occurred by chance.
bulletOne reason, the distribution may occur as it does is that as law schools attempt to move from fourth tier into 3rd tier, they attempt to get more selective and increase median LSAT. Both these moves would effect admission of non-white applicants.
Private/Public Status
bulletPublic law schools have the greatest percentage (51.5%) and largest number (34) of schools with Whiteness greater than or equal to 85%.
bulletOf the three schools that has Whiteness below 55%, 1 is a private and 2 are  public.
bulletThe difference in distribution in schools and whiteness by tier is significant (p=.074). That is there is less than a 7.4% probability that the distribution occurred by chance.
 
 

 

Descriptive Statistics for Historically White Law Schools

N

179

Mean

79.903

Median

81.600

Minimum

29.2

Maximum

95.6

Percent of Whiteness 
in Historically White Law Schools
Number Percent
0.01 to 39.99% 2 1.1
40 to 54.99% 1 0.6
55.0 to 69.9% 22 12.3
70 to 84.99% 88 49.2
>=85.00% 66 36.9

Percent of Law School Whiteness by Tier

Tier

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

1st Tier (USNews)

57.3

91.1

76.550

76.050

2nd Tier (USNews)

29.2

93.0

79.984

81.700

3rd Tier (USNews)

62.7

95.6

86.178

88.050

4th Tier (USNews)

52.2

92.9

79.554

81.800

No US News Ranking

38.5

89.1

71.683

79.000

Total

29.2

95.6

79.903

81.600

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

ANOVA(Combined)

2389.763

4

597.441

6.251

.000

Percent of Whiteness 
in Historically White Law School  By Tier
Percent = row
Example:  
of 1st Tier Schools 9 or 18% was between 55 to 69% white
and 7 were over 85% white

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

1st Tier (USNews)

 

 

9

34

7

50

 

 

18.0%

68.0%

14.0%

100.0%

2nd Tier (USNews)

1

 

6

25

18

50

2.0%

 

12.0%

50.0%

36.0%

100.0%

3rd Tier (USNews)

 

 

1

11

24

36

 

 

2.8%

30.6%

66.7%

100.0%

4th Tier (USNews)

 

1

5

16

15

37

 

2.7%

13.5%

43.2%

40.5%

100.0%

No US News Ranking

1

  

1

2

2

6

16.7%

  

16.7%

33.3%

33.3%

100.0%

Total

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

 

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School
By Tier

Percent = column
Example:
of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  7 or 10.6% are in the 1st Tier  and
24 or 36.4 are in the 3rd Tier

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

1st Tier (USNews)

 

 

9

34

7

50

 

 

40.9%

38.6%

10.6%

27.9%

2nd Tier (USNews)

1

 

6

25

18

50

50.0%

 

27.3%

28.4%

27.3%

27.9%

3rd Tier (USNews)

 

 

1

11

24

36

 

 

4.5%

12.5%

36.4%

20.1%

4th Tier (USNews)

 

1

5

16

15

37

 

100.0%

22.7%

18.2%

22.7%

20.7%

No US News Ranking

1

1

2

2

6

50.0%

4.5%

2.3%

3.0%

3.4%

2

1

22

88

66

179

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

45.311

16

.000

15 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.

Status

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Median

Private

52.2

94.7

78.731

79.400

Public

29.2

95.6

81.566

83.550

Total

29.2

95.6

79.903

81.600

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School
By Region

Percent = row
Example:
of schools in the Northeast 4 or 16.7% or over 85% white and
17 or 70.8% or between 40 to 84.9% white

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

Northeast

 

 

3

17

4

24

 

 

12.5%

70.8%

16.7%

100.0%

New England

 

 

1

6

7

14

 

 

7.1%

42.9%

50.0%

100.0%

Southcentral

 

 

1

9

6

16

 

 

6.3%

56.3%

37.5%

100.0%

Southeast

 

1

2

8

6

17

 

5.9%

11.8%

47.1%

35.3%

100.0%

Midsouth

1

 

1

12

12

26

3.8%

 

3.8%

46.2%

46.2%

100.0%

Midwest

 

 

 

2

10

12

 

 

 

16.7%

83.3%

100.0%

Great Lakes

 

 

2

18

13

33

 

 

6.1%

54.5%

39.4%

100.0%

Mountain West

 

 

2

3

5

10

 

 

20.0%

30.0%

50.0%

100.0%

Northwest

 

 

 

3

3

6

 

 

 

50.0%

50.0%

100.0%

Far West

1

 

10

10

 

21

4.8%

 

47.6%

47.6%

 

100.0%

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School
By Region

Percent = column
Example:
of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  4 or 6.1% are in the Northeast  and
13 or 19.7 are in the Great Lakes region

 

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

Total

Northeast

 

 

3

17

4

24

 

 

13.6%

19.3%

6.1%

13.4%

New England

 

 

1

6

7

14

 

 

4.5%

6.8%

10.6%

7.8%

Southcentral

 

 

1

9

6

16

 

 

4.5%

10.2%

9.1%

8.9%

Southeast

 

1

2

8

6

17

 

100.0%

9.1%

9.1%

9.1%

9.5%

Midsouth

1

 

1

12

12

26

50.0%

 

4.5%

13.6%

18.2%

14.5%

Midwest

 

 

 

2

10

12

 

 

 

2.3%

15.2%

6.7%

Great Lakes

 

 

2

18

13

33

 

 

9.1%

20.5%

19.7%

18.4%

Mountain West

  

 

2

3

5

10

 

 

9.1%

3.4%

7.6%

5.6%

Northwest

 

 

 

3

3

6

 

 

 

3.4%

4.5%

3.4%

Far West

1

10

10

 

21

50.0%

45.5%

11.4%

 

11.7%

 

2

1

22

88

66

179

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

68.256

36

.001

N of Valid Cases

179

 

 

a 35 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.

 

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School
By Private/Public Status

Percent = row
Example:
of Private Law Schools  32 or 30.5% are over 85% white and
1 or 1.% was  between 40 to 54.9% white

  

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

  

Private

 

1

15

57

32

105

  

1.0%

14.3%

54.3%

30.5%

100.0%

Public

2

  

7

31

34

74

2.7%

 

9.5%

41.9%

45.9%

100.0%

  

2

1

22

88

66

179

1.1%

.6%

12.3%

49.2%

36.9%

100.0%

Percent of Whiteness in  Historically White Law School
By Private/Public Status

Percent = column
Example:
of schools with greater than or equal to 85% whiteness  32 or 48.5% are private schools  and
34 or 51.5% are public schools.

  

0.01 to 39.99 % White

40.0 to 54.99 % White

55.0 to 69.99% White

70 to 84.99% white

>=85.00

 

Private: 

 

1

15

57

32

105

 

100.0%

68.2%

64.8%

48.5%

58.7%

Public: 

2

7

31

34

74

100.0%

31.8%

35.2%

51.5%

41.3%

Total: 

2

1

22

88

66

179

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

8.539

4

.074

N of Valid Cases

179

 

a 4 cells (40.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .41.

Last Updated:
Tuesday, April 20, 2004  

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Coming Soon!

bulletThe Whitest Private Law Schools
bulletThe Whitest Law Schools by Tier
bulletThe Whitest Elite Law Schools
bulletWhiteness in Ohio Law School


Same level:

Methodology and Limitations ] Top 10 Whitest Law Schools ] Ranking (All Law Schools) ] Alphabetical Listing (All Schools) ] [ Statistics (Total Whiteness) ] Whitest Regional Law Schools ] Whitest Public Law Schools (State Population) ] Whitest Public Law Schools (LSAC Applications) ] "What Others are Saying" ] Comments Form ] LSATMisuse and Discrimination ] Discrimination in Law School Admission ]

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Home ] Total Whiteness in State LSAC Applications ] Total Whiteness in Regional LSAC Applications ]

Parent Level:

The Whitest Law Schools ]

Units:

[Race and Racial Groups] [Citizenship Rights]  [Justice and Race] [Patterns of Basic Needs] [Intersectionality Issues]  [Human Rights]

 

Always Under Construction!

Always Under Construction!

Copyright @ 2004
Vernellia R. Randall
All Rights Reserved.
Contact: race.mail@notes.udayton.ed

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, some material on this website is provided for comment, background information, research and/or educational purposes only, without permission from the copyright owner(s), under the "fair use" provisions of the federal copyright laws. These materials may not be distributed for other purposes without permission of the copyright owner(s).


Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).