(a) As required by Article 2(1)(a), racial discrimination by the government is prohibited throughout the United States. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments guarantee that no public authority may engage in an act or practice of racial discrimination against persons, groups of persons or institutions. These prohibitions apply with equal force at the federal, state and local levels, and
all public authorities and institutions must comply. As indicated above, U.S. law extends this prohibition to private organizations, institutions and employers under many circumstances.