3 requires States Parties to condemn racial segregation and apartheid
and to undertake to prevent, prohibit and eradicate "all practices
of this nature" in territories under their jurisdiction.
segregation and de jure discrimination has been prohibited in the
United States since the enactment of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and
Fifteenth Amendments a few years after the end of the Civil War.
However, the federal courts interpreted those provisions to permit
state-sponsored and private racial discrimination (so-called
"separate but equal" treatment of the races) through the first
half of the Twentieth Century. This interpretation was authoritatively
overruled by the Supreme Court in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education,
which outlawed racial segregation in public schools and set the
foundation for the elimination of segregation in all forms of public
life. As discussed above, a series of Civil Rights Acts following that
decision has extended the reach of this prohibition to many private
relationships and activities. The United States emphatically condemns
racial segregation and apartheid and prohibits any such practice in all
territories under its jurisdiction.
to the removal of the racist regimes in southern Africa, the United
States condemned the policies and practices of those regimes and imposed
economic and related sanctions in accordance with the decisions of the
United Nations. Independent of the Federal government's actions, many
state and local governments as well as private institutions also acted
to divest or otherwise dissociate themselves economically and
politically from governments and institutions supporting or tolerating
apartheid. Non-governmental groups supported economic boycotts and
lobbied and pressured government at all levels to exert political and
economic influence to end the racist policies in South Africa.