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Article 5(d) Other Civil Rights

United States Report on Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
  Initial Country Report (Sept, 2000). 

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Vernellia R. Randall
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 Other Civil Rights. Article 5(d) obliges States Parties to ensure equality of enjoyment of a number of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of movement and residence, the right to leave one's country and return, the right to a nationality, the right to marriage and choice of spouse, the right to own property alone as well as in association with others, the right to inherit, the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

These rights are guaranteed to all persons in the United States in accordance with various Constitutional and statutory provisions. The right to freedom of movement and residence in the United States is guaranteed to all citizens by the "right to travel." Crandall v. Nevada, 73 U.S. 35 (1868). The right of a citizen to enter and leave the United States is recognized by law. The right to marriage and choice of a spouse is one of the "fundamental rights" protected by the privacy provisions of the U.S. Constitution. Zablocki v. Redhail, 434 U.S. 374 (1978); Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967). The right to non-discrimination in the ownership of property is protected by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution. See 42 U.S.C. sec. 1982; Shelly v. Kramer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948) (finding state action in the state court's enforcement of racially restrictive covenants unconstitutional). Freedom of thought, conscience, religion, opinion, expression and assembly are protected by the First Amendment. One of the purposes of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was to protect these ordinary rights of citizens against encroachment by state and local governments. These "privileges and immunities" of national citizenship cannot be abridged by state or local legislation.

Specific intent to interfere with these rights may be criminally prosecutable under a number of statutes. See, e.g., 18 U.S.C. sec. 241 (for conspiracy to deprive persons of such rights), 242 (for deprivation of rights under "color of law"), 245 (for violence or threatened interference with specified federal rights motivated in part by racial animus), 247 (for violent or threatening interference with right to exercise one's religious beliefs), and 42 U.S.C. sec. 3631 (for violent or threatening interference with rights to own or occupy property and to associate therein with persons of another race).


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Equality Before Tribunals ] Discrimination by Law Enforcement ] Overrepresentation in the criminal justice system ] Disparities in Sentencing ] Capital Punishment ] Prisons ] Article 5(b) Security of Person ] Article 5(c) Political Rights ] [ Article 5(d) Other Civil Rights ] Article 5(e) Economic Social and Cultural Rights ] Article 5(f) Access to Public Accommodations ]
Child Level:
Home ] Up ] Hate Crimes - Federal ] Racial and Ethnic Conflict and Violence ] Racism on the Internet ]
Parent Level:
Introduction ] General Report ] Legal Prohibition ] U.S. Reservations, Understandings and Declarations ] Compliance with Specific Articles ] Article 1 - Racial Discrimination ] Article 2 ] Art 3 Condemn Racial Segregation and Apartheid ] Article 4 Eliminate Incitements or Acts of Discrimination ] Article 5 Equality Under the Law ] Article 6 Assure Effective Protection and Remedies ] Article 7 Adopt Measures ] Conclusion ]
[Race and Racial Groups] [Citizenship Rights]  [Justice and Race] [Patterns of Basic Needs] [Intersectionality Issues] [Human Rights]

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Race, Racism and American Law