This site is no longer being
maintained at this location.

This section of the site Worldwide is being moved to





Intro: Institutional Racism
01 Race and Racism                                        x
02 Citizenship Rights                                       x
03 Justice                                       x
04 Basic Needs                                       x
05 Intersectionality                                        x
06 Worldwide                                        x

  Web Editor:
  Vernellia R. Randall
Professor of Law
The University of Dayton
Web Editor
Personal Website                                     x
Race and Health                                     x
The Whitest Law Schools                                     x
Definition of discrimination (Art. 1, par.1))
General Recommendation XIV

Definition of discrimination (Art. 1, par.1)

(Forty-second session, 1993*

1. Non-discrimination, together with equality before the law and equal protection of the law without any discrimination, constitutes a basic principle in the protection of human rights. The Committee wishes to draw the attention of States parties to certain features of the definition of racial discrimination in article 1, paragraph 1, of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. It is of the opinion that the words "based on" do not bear any meaning different from "on the grounds of" in preambular paragraph 7. A distinction is contrary to the Convention if it has either the purpose or the effect of impairing particular rights and freedoms This is confirmed by the obligation placed upon States parties by article 2, paragraph 1 (c), to nullify any law or practice which has the effect of creating or perpetuating racial discrimination.

2. The Committee observes that a differentiation of treatment will not constitute discrimination if the criteria for such differentiation, judged against the objectives and purposes of the Convention, are legitimate or fall within the scope of article 1, paragraph 4, of the Convention. In considering the criteria that may have been employed, the Committee will acknowledge that particular actions may have varied purposes. In seeking to determine whether an action has an effect contrary to the Convention, it will look to see whether that action has an unjustifiable disparate impact upon a group distinguished by race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin.

3. Article 1, paragraph 1, of the Convention also refers to the political, economic, social and cultural fields; the related rights and freedoms are set up in article 5.

* Contained in document A/48/18.


Copyright 1999 Office of the United Nations 
High Commissioner for Human Rights

Geneva, Switzerland

Submit for Periodic Updates
Update List

GeoPolitical Regions                                     x
Victim Groups                                     x
War on Terrorism                                      x
UN Human Rights                                      x
WCAR2001                                     x
Same level:
[ Definition of Discrimination ] Reporting of Persons ] Identification with a Particular Racial or Ethnic Group ] Racial Segregation and Apartheid ] Organized Violence based on Ethnic Origin ] Non-discriminatory Implementation of Rights ] Refugees, Displaced Persons and Article 5 ] Article 6 - General Comments ] Reporting by States Parties (Art. 7) ] Independence of Experts ] Situations Existing in Other States ] Overdue Reports ] UN Documents Related to CERD ]
Child Level:
Home ] Up ]
Parent Level:
Universal Declaration ] Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice ] Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] Selected Human Rights Treaties and US Status ] Specific Human Rights ] Responsibility and Reparations for Slavery ] The International Criminal Court ]
[Race and Racial Groups] [Citizenship Rights]  [Justice and Race] [Patterns of Basic Needs] [Intersectionality Issues] [Human Rights]


Always Under Construction!

Always Under Construction!

Copyright @ 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001. Vernellia R. Randall
All Rights Reserved.


In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, some material on this website is provided for comment, background information, research and/or educational purposes only, without permission from the copyright owner(s), under the "fair use" provisions of the federal copyright laws. These materials may not be distributed for other purposes without permission of the copyright owner(s).

Last Updated:
Wednesday, April 25, 2012  

You are visitor number
Hit Counter  
Since Sept. 11, 2001  

Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law