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01 Race and Racism                                        x
02 Citizenship Rights                                       x
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  Web Editor:
  Vernellia R. Randall
Professor of Law
The University of Dayton
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Racial Segregation and Apartheid (Art. 3) : . 18/08/95. CERD General recom. 19. (General Comments)
General recommendation XIX

Racial segregation and apartheid (Art. 3)

(Forty-seventh session, 1995)*

1. The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination calls the attention of States parties to the wording of article 3, by which States parties undertake to prevent, prohibit and eradicate all practices of racial segregation and apartheid in territories under their jurisdiction. The reference to apartheid may have been directed exclusively to South Africa, but the article as adopted prohibits all forms of racial segregation in all countries.

2. The Committee believes that the obligation to eradicate all practices of this nature includes the obligation to eradicate the consequences of such practices undertaken or tolerated by previous Governments in the State or imposed by forces outside the State.

3. The Committee observes that while conditions of complete or partial racial segregation may in some countries have been created by governmental policies, a condition of partial segregation may also arise as an unintended by-product of the actions of private persons. In many cities residential patterns are influenced by group differences in income, which are sometimes combined with differences of race, colour, descent and national or ethnic origin, so that inhabitants can be stigmatized and individuals suffer a form of discrimination in which racial grounds are mixed with other grounds.

4. The Committee therefore affirms that a condition of racial segregation can also arise without any initiative or direct involvement by the public authorities. It invites States parties to monitor all trends which can give rise to racial segregation, to work for the eradication of any negative consequences that ensue, and to describe any such action in their periodic reports.


* Contained in document A/50/18.



Copyright 1999
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Geneva, Switzerland 

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Same level:
Definition of Discrimination ] Reporting of Persons ] Identification with a Particular Racial or Ethnic Group ] [ Racial Segregation and Apartheid ] Organized Violence based on Ethnic Origin ] Non-discriminatory Implementation of Rights ] Refugees, Displaced Persons and Article 5 ] Article 6 - General Comments ] Reporting by States Parties (Art. 7) ] Independence of Experts ] Situations Existing in Other States ] Overdue Reports ] UN Documents Related to CERD ]
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Parent Level:
Universal Declaration ] Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice ] Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] Selected Human Rights Treaties and US Status ] Specific Human Rights ] Responsibility and Reparations for Slavery ] The International Criminal Court ]
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Always Under Construction!

Copyright @ 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001. Vernellia R. Randall
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Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).