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General Issues

UNITED NATIONS A, General Assembly Distr., GENERAL, A/ CONF. 189/…… 24 September 2001, Original: ENGLISH, WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE Durban, 31 August-8 September 2001, Adopted on 8 September 2001 in Durban, South Africa (Final Version Released on December 31, 2002)
EDITOR's Note: This document on this website has been reorganized around the themes of the conference. To obtain the original unedited version see:



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            1.            We declare that for the purpose of the present Declaration and Programme of Action, the victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance are individuals or groups of individuals who are or have been negatively affected by, subjected to, or targets of these scourges;

            2.            We recognize that racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance occur on the grounds of race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin and that victims can suffer multiple or aggravated forms of discrimination based on other related grounds such as sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, social origin, property, birth or other status;

            3.            We recognize and affirm that, at the outset of the third millennium, a global fight against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and all their abhorrent and evolving forms and manifestations is a matter of priority for the international community, and that this Conference offers a unique and historic opportunity for assessing and identifying all dimensions of those devastating evils of humanity with a view to their total elimination through, inter alia, the initiation of innovative and holistic approaches and the strengthening and enhancement of practical and effective measures at the national, regional and international levels;

            4.            We express our solidarity with the people of Africa in their continuing struggle against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and recognize the sacrifices made by them, as well as their efforts in raising international public awareness of these inhuman tragedies;

            5.            We also affirm the great importance we attach to the values of solidarity, respect, tolerance and multiculturalism, which constitute the moral ground and inspiration for our worldwide struggle against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, inhuman tragedies which have affected people throughout the world, especially in Africa, for too long;

            6.            We further affirm that all peoples and individuals constitute one human family, rich in diversity.  They have contributed to the progress of civilizations and cultures that form the common heritage of humanity.  Preservation and promotion of tolerance, pluralism and respect for diversity can produce more inclusive societies;

            7.            We declare that all human beings are born free, equal in dignity and rights and have the potential to contribute constructively to the development and well-being of their societies.  Any doctrine of racial superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and must be rejected along with theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races;

            8.            We recognize that religion, spirituality and belief play a central role in the lives of millions of women and men, and in the way they live and treat other persons.  Religion,

spirituality and belief may and can contribute to the promotion of the inherent dignity and worth of the human person and to the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;

            9.            We note with concern that racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance may be aggravated by, inter alia, inequitable distribution of wealth, marginalization and social exclusion;

            10.            We reaffirm that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which all human rights can be fully realized for all, without any discrimination;

            11.            We note that the process of globalization constitutes a powerful and dynamic force which should be harnessed for the benefit, development and prosperity of all countries, without exclusion.  We recognize that developing countries face special difficulties in responding to this central challenge.  While globalization offers great opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly shared, while its costs are unevenly distributed.  We thus express our determination to prevent and mitigate the negative effects of globalization.  These effects could aggravate, inter alia, poverty, underdevelopment, marginalization, social exclusion, cultural homogenization and economic disparities which may occur along racial lines, within and between States, and have an adverse impact.  We further express our determination to maximize the benefits of globalization through, inter alia, the strengthening and enhancement of international cooperation to increase equality of opportunities for trade, economic growth and sustainable development, global communications through the use of new technologies and increased intercultural exchange through the preservation and promotion of cultural diversity, which can contribute to the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.  Only through broad and sustained efforts to create a shared future based upon our common humanity, and all its diversity, can globalization be made fully inclusive and equitable;

            12.            We recognize that interregional and intraregional migration has increased as a result of globalization, in particular from the South to the North, and stress that policies towards migration should not be based on racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;


General Issues
Sources Causes Forms and Manifestations
Victims of Racism
Measures of Prevention Education and Protection
Provision of Effective Remedies and Other Measures
Strategies to Achieve Full and Effective Equality


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Preamble ] [ General Issues ] Sources Causes Forms and Manifestations ] Victims of Racism ] Measures of Prevention Education and Protection ] Provision of Effective Remedies and Other Measures ] Strategies to Achieve Full and Effective Equality ]
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