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Strategies to Achieve Full and Effective Equality

UNITED NATIONS A, General Assembly Distr., GENERAL, A/ CONF. 189/…… 24 September 2001, Original: ENGLISH, WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE Durban, 31 August-8 September 2001, Adopted on 8 September 2001 in Durban, South Africa (Final Version Released on December 31, 2002)
EDITOR's Note: This document on this website has been reorganized around the themes of the conference. To obtain the original unedited version see:

 

  

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STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE FULL AND EFFECTIVE EQUALITY, INCLUDING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND   ENHANCEMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL MECHANISMS IN COMBATING RACISM,   RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE 

Declaration   

106. We underscore the need to design, promote and implement at the national, regional and   international levels strategies, programmes and policies, and adequate legislation, which may   include special and positive measures, for furthering equal social development and the realization of the civil and political, economic, social and cultural rights of all victims of racism, racial   discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, including through more effective access to   the political, judicial and administrative institutions, as well as the need to promote effective   access to justice, as well as to guarantee that the benefits of development, science and technology   contribute effectively to the improvement of the quality of life for all, without discrimination;    

107. We recognize the necessity for special measures or positive actions for the victims of   racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in order to promote their full   integration into society. Those measures for effective action including social measures, should   aim at correcting the conditions that impair the enjoyment of rights and the introduction of   special measures to encourage equal participation of all racial and cultural, linguistic and   religious groups in all sectors of society and to bring all onto an equal footing. Those measures   should include measures to achieve appropriate representation in educational institutions,   housing, political parties, parliaments, employment, especially in the judiciary, police, army and   other civil services, which in some cases might involve electoral reforms, land reforms and   campaigns for equal participation;    

108. We recall the importance of enhancing international cooperation to promote (a) the fight   against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; (b) the effective   implementation by States of international treaties and instruments that forbid these practices; (c)   the goals of the Charter of the United Nations in this regard; (d) the achievement of the goals   established by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de   Janeiro in 1992, the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna in 1993, the   International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994, the World   Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen in 1995, the Fourth World Conference on   Women held in Beijing in 1995, and the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements   (Habitat II) held in Istanbul in 1996 ; and the World Food Summit, held in Rome from 13 to 17   November 1996, making sure that such goals encompass with equity all the victims of racism,   racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;    

109. We recognize the importance of cooperation among States, relevant international and   regional organizations, the international financial institutions, non-governmental organizations and individuals in the worldwide fight against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and   related intolerance, and that success in this fight requires specifically taking into consideration   the grievances, opinions and demands of the victims of such discrimination;    

110. We reiterate that the international response and policy, including financial assistance,   towards refugees and displaced persons in different parts of the world should not be based on   discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin of the refugees   and displaced persons concerned and, in this context, urges the international community to   increase the provision of adequate assistance on an equitable basis to host countries, in particular   to host developing countries and countries in transition;    

111. We recognize the importance of independent national human rights institutions   conforming to the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion   and protection of human rights, annexed to General Assembly resolution 48/ 134   of 20 December 1993, and other relevant specialized institutions created by law for the   promotion and protection of human rights, including ombudsman institutions, in the struggle   against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, as well as for the   promotion of democratic values and the rule of law. We encourage States, as appropriate, to   establish such institutions and call upon the authorities and society in general in those countries   where they are performing their tasks of promotion, protection and prevention to cooperate to the   maximum extent possible with these institutions, while respecting their independence;    

112. We recognize the important role relevant regional bodies, including regional associations   of national human rights institutions, can play in combating racism, racial discrimination,   xenophobia and related intolerance, and the key role they can play in monitoring and raising   awareness about intolerance and discrimination at the regional level, and reaffirm support for   such bodies where they exist and encourage their establishment;    

113. We recognize the paramount role of Parliaments in the fight against racism, racial   discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in adopting appropriate legislation,   overseeing its implementation and allocating the requisite financial resources;

114. We stress the importance of involving social partners and other non-governmental   organizations in the design and implementation of training and development programmes;    

115. We recognize the fundamental role of civil society in the fight against racism, racial   discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, in particular in assisting Governments to   develop regulations and strategies, in taking measures and action against such forms of   discrimination and through follow-up implementation;    

116. We also recognize that promoting greater respect and trust among different groups within   society must be a shared but differentiated responsibility of government institutions, political   leaders, grass-roots organizations and citizens. We underline that civil society plays an important   role in promoting the public interest, especially in combating racism, racial discrimination,   xenophobia and related intolerance;    

117. We welcome the catalytic role that non-governmental organizations play in promoting   human rights education and raising awareness about racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia   and related intolerance. They can also play an important role in raising awareness of such issues   in the relevant bodies of the United Nations, based upon their national, regional or international   experiences. Bearing in mind the difficulties they face, we commit ourselves to creating an   atmosphere conducive to the effective functioning of human rights non-governmental   organizations, in particular anti-racist non-governmental organizations, in combating racism,   racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. We recognize the precarious situation   of human rights non-governmental organizations, including anti-racist non-governmental   organizations, in many parts of the world and express our commitment to adhere to our   international obligations and to lift any unlawful barriers to their effective functioning;    

118. We encourage the full participation of non-governmental organizations in the follow-up   to the World Conference;    

119. We recognize that international and national exchange and dialogue, and the   development of a global network among youth are important and fundamental elements in building intercultural understanding and respect, and will contribute to the elimination of racism,   racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;    

120. We underline the usefulness of involving youth in the development of forward-looking   national, regional and international strategies and in policies to fight racism, racial   discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;    

121 We affirm that our global drive for the total elimination of racism, racial discrimination,   xenophobia and related intolerance is undertaken, and the recommendations contained in the   Programme of Action are made in a spirit of solidarity and international cooperation and are   inspired by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant   international instruments. These recommendations are made with due consideration for the past,   the present and the future, and with a constructive and forward-looking approach. We recognize   that the formulation and implementation of these strategies, policies, programmes and actions,   which should be carried out efficiently and promptly, are the responsibility of all States, with the   full involvement of civil society at the national, regional and international levels.

Programme of Action

  V. STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE FULL AND EFFECTIVE EQUALITY, INCLUDING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND  ENHANCEMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL MECHANISMS IN COMBATING RACISM,  RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE AND FOLLOW-UP 

170. Calls upon States to apply diligently all commitments undertaken by them in the  declarations and plans of action of the regional conferences in which they participated, and to  formulate national policies and action plans to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia  and related intolerance in compliance with the objectives set forth therein, and as provided for in  other relevant instruments and decisions; and further requests that, in cases where such national  policies and action plans to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance already exist, States incorporate in them the commitments arising from their regional  conferences; 

171. Urges States that have not yet done so to consider acceding to the Geneva Conventions  of 12 August 1949 and their two Additional Protocols of 1977, as well as to other treaties of  international humanitarian law, and to enact, with the highest priority, appropriate legislation,  taking the measures required to give full effect to their obligations under international  humanitarian law, in particular in relation to the rules prohibiting discrimination; 

172. Urges States to develop cooperation programmes to promote equal opportunities for the  benefit of victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and  encourages them to propose the creation of multilateral cooperation programmes with the same  objective; 

173. Invites States to include the subject of the struggle against racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance in the work programmes of the regional integration agencies  and of the regional cross-boundary dialogue forums; 

174. Urges States to recognize the challenges that people of different socially constructed races,  colours, descent, national or ethnic origins, religions and languages experience in seeking to live  together and to develop harmonious multi-racial and multi-cultural societies; also urges States to 44  44 Page 45 46  A/ CONF. 189/ page 75  recognize that the positive examples of relatively successful multi-racial and multi-cultural  societies, such as some of those in the Caribbean region, need to be examined and analysed, and  that techniques, mechanisms, policies and programmes for reconciling conflicts based on factors  related to race, colour, descent, language, religion, national or ethnic origin, and for developing  harmonious multi-racial and multi cultural societies need to be systematically considered and  developed, and therefore requests the United Nations and its relevant specialized agencies to  consider establishing an international centre for multi-racial and multi-cultural studies and policy  development to undertaken this critical work for the benefit of the international community; 

175. Urges States to protect the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of  minorities within their respective territories and to develop appropriate legislative and other  measures to encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity, in order to protect them  from any form of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. In this  context, forms of multiple discrimination should be fully taken into account. 

176. Further urges States to equally ensure the protection and promotion of the identities of the  historically disadvantaged communities in those unique circumstances where this may be  appropriate; 

177. Urges States to take or strengthen measures, including through bilateral or multilateral  cooperation, to address root causes, such as poverty, underdevelopment and lack of equal  opportunity, some of which may be associated with discriminatory practices, that make persons,  especially women and children, vulnerable to trafficking, which may give rise to racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; 

178. Encourages States, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, to undertake  campaigns aimed at clarifying opportunities, limitations and rights in the event of migration so  as to enable everyone, in particular women to make informed decisions and to prevent them  from becoming victims of trafficking; 

179. Urges States to adopt and implement social development policies based on reliable  statistical data and centred on the attainment, by the year 2015, of the commitments to meet the 45  45 Page 46 47  A/ CONF. 189/ page 76  basic needs of all set forth in paragraph 36 of the Programme of Action of the World Summit for  Social Development, held at Copenhagen in 1995, with a view to significantly close the existing  gaps in living conditions faced by victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and  related intolerance, especially regarding the illiteracy rate, universal primary education, infant  mortality, under-five child mortality, health, reproductive health care to all, and access to safe  drinking water. Promotion of gender equality will also be taken into account in the adoption and  implementation of these policies. 

International legal framework  180. Urges States to continue cooperating with the Committee on the Elimination of Racial  Discrimination and other human rights treaty monitoring bodies in order to promote, including  by means of a constructive and transparent dialogue, the effective implementation of these  instruments and proper consideration of the recommendations adopted by these bodies  concerning complaints of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; 

181. Requests adequate resources for the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination  in order to enable the full discharge of its mandate and stresses the importance of providing  adequate resources for all United Nations human rights treaty bodies. 

General international instruments  182. Endorses efforts of the international community, in particular steps taken under the auspices  of UNESCO to promote respect for and preserve cultural diversity within and between  communities and nations with a view to creating a harmonious multicultural world, including  elaboration of a possible international instrument in this respect in a manner consistent with  international human rights instruments; 

183. Invites the United Nations General Assembly to consider elaborating an integral and  comprehensive International Convention to protect and promote the rights and dignity of  disabled people, including especially provisions that address the discriminatory practices and  treatment affecting them. 46  46 Page 47 48  A/ CONF. 189/ page 77  Regional/ international cooperation  184. Invites the Inter-Parliamentary Union to contribute to the activities of the International Year  of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance by  encouraging national Parliaments to review progress on the objectives of the World Conference; 

185. Encourages States to participate in regional dialogues on problems of migration and invites  them to consider negotiating bilateral and regional agreements on migrant workers and designing  and implementing programmes with States of other regions to protect the rights of migrants; 

186. Urges States, in consultation with civil society, to support or otherwise establish, as  appropriate, regional, comprehensive dialogues on the causes and consequences of migration that  focus not only on law enforcement and border control, but also on the promotion and protection  of the human rights of migrants and on the relationship between migration and development; 

187. Encourages international organizations having mandates dealing specifically with migration  issues to exchange information and coordinate their activities on matters involving racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance against migrants, including migrant workers,  with the support of the Office of the United Nations High Commissio ner for Human Rights; 

188. Expresses its deep concern over the severity of humanitarian sufferings of affected civilian  populations and the burden carried by many receiving countries, particularly developing  countries and countries in transition, and requests the relevant international institutions to ensure  that urgent adequate financial and humanitarian assistance is maintained for the host countries to  enable them to help the victims, to address on an equitable basis, difficulties of populations  expelled from their homes and calls for sufficient safeguards to enable refugees to exercise freely  their right of return to their countries of origin voluntarily, in safety and dignity; 

189. Encourages States to conclude bilateral, subregional, regional and international agreements  to address the problem of trafficking in women and children, in particular girls, as well as the  smuggling of migrants; 47  47 Page 48 49  A/ CONF. 189/ page 78  190. Calls upon States, to promote, as appropriate, exchanges at the regional and international  levels among independent national institutions and as applicable other relevant independent  bodies with a view to enhance cooperation to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia  and related intolerance; 

191. Urges States to support the activities of regional bodies/ centres which combat racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance where they exist in their region, and  recommends the establishment of such bodies where they do not exist/ be considered in all  regions. These bodies/ centres may undertake the following activities, amongst others: assess and  follow-up the situation of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and  of individuals or groups which are victims thereof or subject to identify trends and  issues/ problems; collect, disseminate and exchange information/ inter alia relevant to the outcome  of regional conferences and the World Conference and build networks to these ends; highlight  examples of good practice; organize awareness raising campaigns; develop  proposals/ solutions/ preventive measures, where possible and appropriate, through joint efforts by  coordinating with the United Nations, regional organizations and Member States and national  human rights institutions; 

192. Urges international organizations, within their mandates, to contribute to the fight against  racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; 

193. Encourages financial and development institutions and the operational programmes and  specialised agencies of the United Nations, in accordance with their regular budgets and the  procedures of their governing bodies, to:  a) Assign particular priority and allocate sufficient funding, within their areas of  competence and budgets, to improve the situation of victims of racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in order to combat manifestations of  racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and to include them in  the development and implementation of projects concerning them,  b) Integrate human rights principles and standards into their policies and programmes, 48  48 Page 49 50  A/ CONF. 189/ page 79  c) Consider including in their regular reporting to their boards of governors information on  their contribution to promote the participation of victims of racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance within their programmes and activities, and  information on the efforts taken to facilitate their participation and to ensure that these  policies and practices contribute to the eradication of racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance,  d) Examine how their policies and practices affect victims of racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance and ensure that these policies and practices contribute  to the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. 

194.  a) Calls upon States to elaborate in consultation with national human rights institutions, other  institutions created by law to combat racism, and civil society and to provide the High  Commissioner for Human Rights with action plans and other relevant materials on the  measures undertaken in order to implement provisions of the Declaration and the Programme  of Action.  b) In follow-up to the World Conference, the High Commissioner for Human Rights is  requested to cooperate with five independent eminent experts, one from each region,  appointed by the Secretary-General from among candidates proposed by the Chairman of the  Commission on Human Rights, after consultation with the regional groups, to follow the  implementation of the provisions of the Declaration and Programme of Action. An annual  progress report on the implementation of these provisions will be presented by the High  Commissioner to the Commission on Human Rights and the General Assembly, taking into  account information and views provided by States, relevant human rights treaty bodies,  special procedures and other mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights of the United  Nations, international, regional and non-governmental organizations and national human  rights institutions;  c) Welcomes the intention of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to  establish, within the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, an anti-discrimination  unit to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance and to promote equality and non-discrimination, and invites her to consider the  inclusion into its mandate, inter alia, the compilation of information on racial discrimination 49  49 Page 50 51  A/ CONF. 189/ page 80  and its development, on legal and administrative support and advice to victims of racial  discrimination and the collection of background materials provided by States, international,  regional and non-governmental organizations and national human rights institutions under  the follow-up mechanism of the World Conference;  d) Recommends that the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in co-operation  with States, international, regional and non-governmental organizations and national human  rights institutions creates a database containing information on practical means to address  racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, particularly international  and regional instruments and national legislation, including anti-discrimination legislation, as  well as legal means to combat racial discrimination; on remedies available through  international mechanisms to victims of racial discrimination as well as national remedies;  educational and preventive programmes implemented in various countries and regions; best  practices to address racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance;  opportunities for technical cooperation; and academic studies and specialized documents, and  assure that such a database is as accessible as possible to those in authority and the public at  large, through its website and by other appropriate means; 

195. Invites the United Nations and UNESCO to continue to organize high-level and other  meetings on the Dialogue among Civilizations and, with this purpose, to mobilize funds and  promote partnerships; 

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights  196. Encourages the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to continue and  expand the appointment and designation of goodwill ambassadors in all countries of the world in  order to, inter alia, promote respect for human rights, a culture of tolerance and to increase the  level of awareness about the scourge of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance; 

197. Calls upon the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to continue its efforts to  further increase awareness of the work of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial  Discrimination and other United Nations human rights treaty bodies; 50  50 Page 51 52  A/ CONF. 189/ page 81  198. Invites the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in consultation with the  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and non-governmental  organizations active in the field of the promotion and protection of human rights, to undertake  regular consultations with them and to encourage research activities aimed at collecting,  maintaining and adapting the technical, scientific, educational and information materials  produced by all cultures around the world to fight racism; 

199. Requests the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to pay special attention to  violations of the human rights of victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance, in particular migrants, including migrant workers, to promote international  cooperation in combating xenophobia and, to this end, develop programmes which can be  applied in countries on the basis of appropriate cooperation agreements; 

200. Invites States to assist the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in  developing and funding, upon the request of States, specific technical cooperation projects aimed  at combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; 

201. The World Conference: (a) Invites the Commission on Human Rights to include into mandates of the Special  Rapporteurs and working groups of the Commission on Human Rights, in particular  the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, recommendations to  consider the relevant provisions of the Declaration and the Programme of Action  while exercising their mandates, in particular, reporting to the General Assembly and  the Commission on Human Rights and also to consider any other appropriate means  to follow-up on the outcome on the World Conference.  (b) Calls upon States to cooperate with the relevant special procedures of the  Commission on Human Rights and other mechanisms of the United Nations in  matters pertaining to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance, in particular with the special rapporteurs, independent experts and  special representatives; 51  51 Page 52 53  A/ CONF. 189/ page 82  202. Recommends that the Commission on Human Rights prepare complementary international  standards to strengthen and update international instruments against racism,  racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in all their aspects; 

Decades  203. Urges States and the international community to support the activities of the Third Decade  to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination; 

204. Recommends that the General Assembly consider declaring a United Nations year or  decade against trafficking in persons, especially in women, youth and children in order to protect  their dignity and human rights; 

205. Urges States, in close cooperation with UNESCO, to promote the implementation of the  Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace and the objectives of the  International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World to  started in 2001 and invites UNESCO to contribute to these activities; 

Indigenous peoples  206. Recommends that the United Nations Secretary-Gene ral conduct an evaluation of the  results of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1995-2004) and make  recommendations concerning how to mark the end of this Decade, including an appropriate  follow-up; 

207. Requests States to ensure adequate funding for the establishment of an operational  framework and a firm basis for the future development of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous  Issues within the United Nations system; 

208. Urges States to cooperate with the work of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human  rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people and requests the Secretary-General and 52  52 Page 53 54  A/ CONF. 189/ page 83  the High Commissioner for Human Rights to ensure that the Special Rapporteur is provided with  all the necessary human, technical and financial resources to fulfil his/ her responsibilities; 

209. Calls upon States to conclude negotiations on and approve as soon as possible the text of  the draft declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples, under discussion by the working group  of the Commission on Human Rights to elaborate a draft declaration, in accordance with  Commission resolution 1995/ 32; 

210. Urges States, in the light of the relationship between racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance and poverty, marginality and social exclusion of peoples and  individuals at both the national and international levels, to enhance their policies and measures to  reduce income and wealth inequalities and to take appropriate steps, individually and through  international cooperation, to promote and protect economic, social and cultural rights on a  non-discriminatory basis; 

211. Urges States and international financial and development institutions to mitigate any  negative effects of globalization by examining inter alia how their policies and practices affect  national populations in general and indigenous peoples in particular; by ensuring that their  policies and practices contribute to the eradication of racism through the participation of national  populations and, in particular, indigenous peoples in development projects; by further  democratizing international financial institutions; and by consulting with indigenous peoples on  any matter that may affect their physical, spiritual or cultural integrity; 

212. Invites financial and development institutions and the operational programmes and  specialized agencies of the United Nations, in accordance with their regular budgets and the  procedures of their governing bodies:  (a) To assign particular priority to and allocate sufficient funding, within their areas of  competence, to the improvement of the status of indigenous peoples, with special  attention to the needs of these populations in developing countries, including the  preparation of specific programmes with a view to achieving the objectives of the  International Decade of the World's Indigenous People; 53  53 Page 54 55  A/ CONF. 189/ page 84  (b) To carry out special projects, through appropriate channels and in collaboration with  indigenous peoples, to support their initiatives at the community level and to facilitate  the exchange of information and technical know-how between indigenous peoples and  experts in these areas; 

Civil society  213. Calls upon States to strengthen cooperation, develop partnerships and consult regularly with  non-governmental organizations and all other sectors of the civil society to harness their  experience and expertise thereby contributing to the development of legislation, policies and  other governmental initiatives, as well as involving them more closely in the elaboration and  implementation of policies and programmes designed to combat racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance; 

214. Urges leaders from religious communities to continue to confront racism, racial discrimination,  xenophobia and related intolerance through, inter alia, promotion and sponsoring of dialogue and  partnerships to bring about reconciliation and healing and harmony within and among societies, and  invites the religious community to participate in promoting economic and social revitalization and  encourages religious leaders to foster greater cooperation and contact between diverse racial groups; 

215. Urges States to establish and strengthen effective partnerships with and provide support, as  appropriate, to all relevant actors of civil society, including non-governmental organizations  working to promote gender equality and advancement of women, particularly women subject to  multiple discrimination, to promote an integrated and holistic approach to the elimination of all  forms of discrimination against women and girls; 

Non-governmental organizations  216. Urges States to provide an open and conducive environment to enable non-governmental  organizations to function freely and openly within their societies and thereby make an effective  contribution to the elimination of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related  intolerance throughout the world and promote a wider role for grass-roots organizations; 54  54 Page 55 56  A/ CONF. 189/ page 85  217. Calls upon States to explore means to expand the role of non-governmental organizations in  society through, in particular, deepening the ties of solidarity amongst citizens, promoting  greater trusts across racial and social class divides by promoting wider citizen involvement and  more voluntary cooperation ; 

The private sector  218. Urges States to take measures including, where appropriate, legislative measures, to ensure  that transnational corporations and other foreign enterprises operating within their national  territories conform to precepts and practices of non-racism and non-discrimination, and further  encourages the business sector, including transnational corporations and foreign enterprises, to  collaborate with trade unions and other relevant sectors of civil society to develop voluntary  codes of conduct for all businesses, designed to prevent, address and eradicate racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; 

Youth  219. Urges States to encourage the full and active participation of, as well as involve more  closely, youth in the elaboration, planning and implementation of activities to fight racism, racial  discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, and calls upon States, in partnership with  non-governmental organizations and other sectors of society, to facilitate both national and  international youth dialogue on racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance,  through the World Youth Forum of the United Nations system and through the use of new  technologies, exchanges and other means; 

220. Urges States to encourage and facilitate the establishment and maintenance of youth  mechanisms, set up by youth organizations and young women and men themselves, in the spirit  of combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, through such  activities as, among others: disseminating and exchanging information and building networks to  these ends; organizing awareness-raising campaigns and participating in multicultural education  programmes; developing proposals/ solutions where possible and appropriate; cooperating and 55  55 Page 56  A/ CONF. 189/ page 86  consulting regularly with non-governmental organizations and other actors in civil society in  developing initiatives and programmes that promote intercultural exchange and dialogue. 

221. Urges States, in co-operation with intergovernmental organisations, the International  Olympic Committee and International and Regional Sports Federations, to intensify the fight  against racism in sport by, among other things, educating the youth of the world through sport  practised without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires human  understanding , tolerance, fair play and solidarity. 

222. Recognizes that the success of this Programme of Action will require political will and  adequate funding at the national, regional and international levels, and international cooperation. 

1 .For the purpose of this Declaration and Programme of Action, it was understood that the term  "gender" refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term "gender" does not indicate any meaning different from the above. 

2 . Reference should be made to paragraphs _________ of the Report of the Conference which  lists all the reservations and statements on the Declaration and the Programme of Action. 

 
 
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