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UNITS
Intro: Institutional Racism
01 Race and Racism                                        x
02 Citizenship Rights                                       x
03 Justice                                       x
04 Basic Needs                                       x
05 Intersectionality                                        x
06 Worldwide                                        x

 
  Web Editor:
  Vernellia R. Randall
Professor of Law
The University of Dayton
Web Editor
   
  OTHER WEBSITES
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Adopted
Entry into Force
Status
Date
Reserva
tions
Under
standing
Declara
tion
Object
ion
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Dec 10, 1948 yes Ratified          
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) Dec 16, 1966 Jan 3, 1976 Signatory

Not Ratified

Oct 5, 1977        
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR) Dec 16, 1966 Mar 23, 1976 Ratified June 08, 1992 Yes Yes Yes  
Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (OPT) Dec 16, 1966 Mar 23, 1976 Not Signed or Ratified          
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aimed at the abolition of the death penalty (OPT2) Dec 15, 1989   Not Signed or Ratified          
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) Dec 21, 1965 Jan 4, 1969 Ratified Oct 21, 1994 Yes      
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Dec 18, 1979 Sept. 3, 1981 Signatory

Not Ratified

July 17, 1980        
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Oct 6, 1999 Dec 22, 2000 Not Signed or Ratified          
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) Dec 10, 1984 Jun 26, 1987 Ratified Oct 21, 1994        
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Nov 20, 1989 Sept. 2, 1990 Signatory

Not Ratified

Feb16, 1995        
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict May 25 2000   Signatory

Not Ratified

Jul 5, 2000        
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography May 25 2000   Signatory

Not Ratified

Jul 5, 2000        
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (MWC) Dec 18, 1990   Not Signed or Ratified          

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR)

 

Reservations:

"(1) That article 20 does not authorize or require legislation or other action by the United States that would restrict the right of free speech and association protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States.

"(2) That the United States reserves the right, subject to its Constitutional constraints, to impose capital punishment on any person (other than a pregnant woman) duly convicted under existing or future laws permitting the imposition of capital punishment, including such punishment for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age.

"(3) That the United States considers itself bound by article 7 to the extent that `cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' means the cruel and unusual treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and-or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

"(4) That because U.S. law generally applies to an offender the penalty in force at the time the offence was committed, the United States does not adhere to the third clause of paragraph 1 of article 15.

"(5) That the policy and practice of the United States are generally in compliance with and supportive of the Covenant's provisions regarding treatment of juveniles in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, the United States reserves the right, in exceptional circumstances, to treat juveniles as adults, notwithstanding paragraphs 2 (b) and 3 of article 10 and paragraph 4 of article 14. The United States further reserves to these provisions with respect to States with respect to individuals who volunteer for military service prior to age 18."

Understandings:

"(1) That the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee all persons equal protection of the law and provide extensive protections against discrimination. The United States understands distinctions based upon race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or any other status - as those terms are used in article 2, paragraph 1 and article 26 - to be permitted when such distinctions are, at minimum, rationally related to a legitimate governmental objective. The United States further understands the prohibition in paragraph 1 of article 4 upon discrimination, in time of public emergency, based `solely' on the status of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin, not to bar distinctions that may have a disproportionate effect upon persons of a particular status.

"(2) That the United States understands the right to compensation referred to in articles 9 (5) and 14 (6) to require the provision of effective and enforceable mechanisms by which a victim of an unlawful arrest or detention or a miscarriage of justice may seek and, where justified, obtain compensation from either the responsible individual or the appropriate governmental entity. Entitlement to compensation may be subject to the reasonable requirements of domestic law.

"(3) That the United States understands the reference to `exceptional circumstances' in paragraph 2 (a) of article 10 to permit the imprisonment of an accused person with convicted persons where appropriate in light of an individual's overall dangerousness, and to permit accused persons to waive their right to segregation from convicted persons. The United States further understands that paragraph 3 of article 10 does not diminish the goals of punishment, deterrence, and incapacitation as additional legitimate purposes for a penitentiary system.

"(4) That the United States understands that subparagraphs 3 (b) and (d) of article 14 do not require the provision of a criminal defendant's counsel of choice when the defendant is provided with court-appointed counsel on grounds of indigence, when the defendant is financially able to retain alternative counsel, or when imprisonment is not imposed. The United States further understands that paragraph 3 (e) does not prohibit a requirement that the defendant make a showing that any witness whose attendance he seeks to compel is necessary for his defense. The United States understands the prohibition upon double jeopardy in paragraph 7 to apply only when the judgment of acquittal has been rendered by a

"(5) That the United States understands that this Covenant shall be implemented by the Federal Government to the extent that it exercises legislative and judicial jurisdiction over the matters covered therein, and otherwise by the state and local governments; to the extent that state and local governments exercise jurisdiction over such matters, the Federal Government shall take measures appropriate to the Federal system to the end that the competent authorities of the state or local governments may take appropriate measures for the fulfillment of the Covenant."

Declarations:

"(1) That the United States declares that the provisions of articles 1 through 27 of the Covenant are not self-executing.

"(2) That it is the view of the United States that States Party to the Covenant should wherever possible refrain from imposing any restrictions or limitations on the exercise of the rights recognized and protected by the Covenant, even when such restrictions and limitations are permissible under the terms of the Covenant. For the United States, article 5, paragraph 2, which provides that fundamental human rights existing in any State Party may not be diminished on the pretext that the Covenant recognizes them to a lesser extent, has particular relevance to article 19, paragraph 3 which would permit certain restrictions on the freedom of expression. The United States declares that it will continue to adhere to the requirements and constraints of its Constitution in respect to all such restrictions and limitations.

"(3) That the United States declares that the right referred to in article 47 may be exercised only in accordance with international law."

United States of America

"The United States declares that it accepts the competence of the Human Rights Committee to receive and consider communications under article 41 in which a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the Covenant.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

Reservations

Upon signature:

"The Constitution of the United States contains provisions for the protection of individual rights, such as the right of free speech, and nothing in the Convention shall be deemed to require or to authorize legislation or other action by the United States of America incompatible with the provisions of the Constitution of the United States of America."

Upon ratification:

"I. The Senate's advice and consent is subject to the following reservations:

(1) That the Constitution and laws of the United States contain extensive protections of individual freedom of speech, expression and association. Accordingly, the United States does not accept any obligation under this Convention, in particular under articles 4 and 7, to restrict those rights, through the adoption of legislation or any other measures, to the extent that they are protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(2) That the Constitution and laws of the United States establish extensive protections against discrimination, reaching significant areas of non-governmental activity. Individual privacy and freedom from governmental interference in private conduct, however, are also recognized as among the fundamental values which shape our free and democratic society. The United States understands that the identification of the rights protected under the Convention by reference in article 1 to fields of `public life' reflects a similar distinction between spheres of public conduct that are customarily the subject of governmental regulation, and spheres of private conduct that are not. To the extent, however, that the Convention calls for a broader regulation of private conduct, the United States does not accept any obligation under this Convention to enact legislation or take other measures under paragraph (1) of article 2, subparagraphs (1) (c) and (d) of article 2, article 3 and article 5 with respect to private conduct except as mandated by the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(3) That with reference to article 22 of the Convention, before any dispute to which the United States is a party may be submitted to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice under this article, the specific consent of the United States is required in each case.

II. The Senate's advice and consent is subject to the following understanding, which shall apply to the obligations of the United States under this Convention:

That the United States understands that this Convention shall be implemented by the Federal Government to the extent that it exercises jurisdiction over the matters covered therein, and otherwise by the state and local governments. To the extent that state and local governments exercise jurisdiction over such matters, the Federal Government shall, as necessary, take appropriate measures to ensure the fulfilment of this Convention.

III. The Senate's advice and consent is subject to the following declaration:

That the United States declares that the provisions of the Convention are not self-executing."

 

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Universal Declaration ] Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice ] Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ] [ Selected Human Rights Treaties and US Status ] Specific Human Rights ] Responsibility and Reparations for Slavery ] The International Criminal Court ]
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Always Under Construction!

Always Under Construction!

Copyright @ 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001. Vernellia R. Randall
All Rights Reserved.

 

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Thanks to Derrick Bell and his pioneer work: 
Race, Racism and American Law
(1993).