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 William C. Kidder

William C. Kidder, The Struggle for Access from Sweatt to Grutter: a History of African American, Latino, And American Indian Law School Admissions, 1950-2000, 19 Harvard BlackLetter Law Journal 1-41 (Spring, 2003)(190 Footnotes)


In Grutter v. Bollinger, a challenge to race-conscious affirmative action at the University of Michigan Law School, the Sixth Circuit recently ruled that achieving diversity to enhance education is a compelling governmental interest and that the Michigan Law School's program is narrowly tailored to meet that goal. With the Supreme Court granting review of Grutter to consider the constitutionality of the Michigan Law School's affirmative action policies, it is a particularly opportune time to look back at law school admissions over the last half-century. Because the Court treats Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as coextensive with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and since every law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) is a recipient of federal funding, the Court's ruling in Grutter will have profound implications n the ability of private and public law schools and other institutions of higher learning to maintain diverse student bodies.

In this Article, using a wide array of published and unpublished data, I attempt to document and analyze law school admissions opportunities for African American, Latino, and American Indian students over the past fifty years. In particular, I review the meager representation of students of color in law schools in the pre-affirmative action era. I also analyze the early development of affirmative action in the late 1960s, particularly at so-called "elite" law schools, and I consider the increase in competitiveness of law school admissions during this same period--a phenomenon that led schools to place increasingly greater reliance on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). In chronicling the national enrollment and admissions decision patterns since the 1970s, the Article also focuses partly on the impact of the Supreme Court's ruling in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.

The historical and contemporary law school admissions and enrollment data, I argue, will support four claims. First, before law schools adopted affirmative action programs in the late 1960s, law schools and the legal profession were overwhelmingly de facto segregated. Second, even with the tool of affirmative action, White students have consistently had higher admissions rates than students of color since the mid-1970s. Third, a comprehensive review of the consequences of ending affirmative action at public law schools in California, Texas, and Washington reveal that there is little evidence that race-neutral alternatives to affirmative action are viable in legal education. When affirmative action was prohibited at law schools that are similar to the University of Michigan, the number of underrepresented minorities sank to levels not seen since the late 960s. Finally, recent national admissions data are consistent with the conclusion that student activism can have a positive influence on admissions rates. Conversely, affirmative action bans and threats of litigation are associated with a widening of the gap in admissions rates in recent years between Whites and students of color nationwide.

Legal Education Before Affirmative Action ] The Rise of Affirmative Action ] The Rise of the LSAT ] Stalled Progress ] The Fall of Affirmative Action ] Contemporary Admission Environment ]
LSAT USNEWS and Minority Admissions
LSAT Discrimination and Minorities
Discrimination in Law School Admission
InEfficient Racism of the ABA
LSAT Magnifies Differences in Educational Attainment
Defending the Use of Quota's in Law Schools
Assessing Stagnant Enrollment of Blacks in Law Schools
LSAC Cautionary Policies re Use of LSAT
LSA Practices.pdf
LSAC letter.pdf
LSAC Good Practices
Law School Admission Factors
A History of MInorities in Legal Education
LSAC Bar Passage Study
Selected Readings on LSAT and Minority Admission

Last Updated: Wednesday, March 24, 2004  
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LSAT USNEWS and Minority Admissions ] LSAT Discrimination and Minorities ] Discrimination in Law School Admission ] InEfficient Racism of the ABA ] LSAT Magnifies Differences in Educational Attainment ] Defending the Use of Quota's in Law Schools ] Assessing Stagnant Enrollment of Blacks in Law Schools ] StatementLSATBrochure.pdf ] LSAC Cautionary Policies re Use of LSAT ] LSA Practices.pdf ] LSAC letter.pdf ] Scorebands.pdf ] LSAC Good Practices ] Law School Admission Factors ] [ A History of MInorities in Legal Education ] LSAC Bar Passage Study ] Selected Readings on LSAT and Minority Admission ]
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